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earring flower, hardy fuchsia, hummingbird fuchsia, Magellan fuchsia

Habit Shrubs glabrous or sparsely strigillose.
Stems

arcuate, 1–3(–5) m.

Leaves

in whorls of 3 or 4 per node, sometimes opposite;

petiole 0.5–1(–2) cm;

blade elliptic-ovate or ovate to lanceolate, 1.5–6(–7) × 1–2(–4) cm.

stipules present or absent.

Flowers

1 or 2 per node of distal leaves, pendent;

floral tube crimson, 7–15 mm;

sepals crimson, (15–)17–25(–30) mm;

petals convolute after anthesis, (8–)11–20 mm;

stamens exserted;

filaments 18–35 mm;

stigma clavate.

floral tube present or, rarely, absent;

sepals 2 or 4 (very rarely 3), deciduous with floral tube, petals, and stamens;

petals yellow, white, pink, red, rarely in combination.

Berry

oblong, 10–22 mm;

pedicel (10–)20–55 mm.

xI> = 7, 10, 11, 15, 18.

2n

= 44.

Fuchsia magellanica

Onagraceae subfam. Onagroideae

Phenology Flowering May–Nov.
Habitat Sea bluffs, ditches, creek banks, damp thickets in partial shade or full sun.
Elevation 10–200 m. (0–700 ft.)
Distribution
from FNA
CA; OR; South America [Introduced in North America; introduced also in w Europe (Ireland), Asia (India), e Africa, Pacific Islands (Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
North America; Mexico; Central America; South America; West Indies; Eurasia; Pacific Islands (New Zealand, Society Islands); Australia
Discussion

Fuchsia magellanica is known in the flora area from Alameda, Contra Costa, Humboldt, Mendocino, Monterey, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, and Sonoma counties in California, and Coos, Curry, Lane, and Lincoln counties in Oregon; it is native to the southern Andes in South America (Argentina, Chile).

Fuchsia magellanica is a member of sect. Quelusia (Vandelli) de Candolle, characterized by its shrubby-lianoid habit, opposite or whorled leaves, and distinctive floral pattern associated with hummingbird pollination, including violet, convolute petals, strongly exserted stamens, and partially connate sepals that are longer than the floral tubes. In the flora area, it is visited by Anna’s Hummingbird (Calypte anna).

In Oregon, besides the normal red and purple flowered plants, there are also naturalized populations of a much paler flowered form of Fuchsia magellanica in which the floral tubes and sepals are pale white or tinged with pink, and the petals are only slightly purple. Similar populations can be found in the wild in Patagonia, and similar color variants are naturalized in New Zealand. One particular naturalized population near Brookings, Curry County, Oregon, is different from the other naturalized F. magellanica populations, and it appears to have originated from escaped cultivars involving a cross between F. magellanica and F. coccinea Aiton, a Brazilian species also in sect. Quelusia. Another naturalized population at the northern end of Bodega Bay, Sonoma County, California, is adjacent to banks full of F. magellanica, but it is different and appears to be intermediate between F. regia Vellozo and F. coccinea. In California, additional species of Fuchsia have been reported by collections or observations. Fuchsia hybrida hort. ex Siebold & Voss, which can distinguished from F. magellanica by the longer floral tube, 10–20 mm, and sepals 25–30 mm, is a variable garden hybrid involving F. magellanica or F. regia as one of the parents. Most of the observations or collection occurrence outside of cultivation of F. hybrida usually are near buildings or gardens or on a university campus. Fuchsia boliviana Carrière, which can be separated from other others by its floral tube (25–)30–60(–70) mm, scarlet petals, and flowers in pendent racemes or few-branched panicles, was reported as naturalized based on an erroneous observation.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Genera 21, species 582 (16 genera, 246 species in the flora).

Onagroideae encompass the main lineage of the family, after the early branching of Ludwigia (R. A. Levin et al. 2003, 2004). This large and diverse lineage is distinguished by the presence of a floral tube beyond the apex of the ovary; sepals deciduous with the floral tube, petals, and stamens; pollen shed in monads (or tetrads in Chylismia sect. Lignothera and all but one species of Epilobium); ovular vascular system exclusively transseptal (R. H. Eyde 1981); ovule archesporium multicellular (H. Tobe and P. H. Raven 1996); and change in base chromosome number from x = 8 in Ludwigia to x = 10 or x = 11 at the base of Onagroideae (Raven 1979; Levin et al. 2003). Molecular work (Levin et al. 2003, 2004) substantially supports the traditional tribal classification (P. A. Munz 1965; Raven 1979, 1988); tribes are recognized to delimit major branches within the phylogeny of Onagroideae, where the branches comprise strongly supported monophyletic groups of one or more genera.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 10. FNA vol. 10.
Parent taxa Onagraceae > subfam. Onagroideae > tribe Circaeeae > Fuchsia Onagraceae
Subordinate taxa
Name authority Lamarck in J. Lamarck et al.: Encycl. 2: 565. (1788) W. L. Wagner & Hoch: Syst. Bot. Monogr. 83: 41. (2007)
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