The green links below add additional plants to the comparison table. Blue links lead to other Web sites.
enable glossary links

earring flower, hardy fuchsia, hummingbird fuchsia, Magellan fuchsia

fuchsia

Habit Shrubs glabrous or sparsely strigillose. Shrubs, [lianas, epiphytes, or trees].
Stems

arcuate, 1–3(–5) m.

scandent, [erect, ascending, pendant, or decumbent], branched.

Leaves

in whorls of 3 or 4 per node, sometimes opposite;

petiole 0.5–1(–2) cm;

blade elliptic-ovate or ovate to lanceolate, 1.5–6(–7) × 1–2(–4) cm.

cauline, opposite or whorled [alternate];

stipules present, usually deciduous; petiolate;

blade margins serrulate to crenate-dentate [entire].

Inflorescences

solitary flowers in leaf axils [racemes, panicles, or involucrate when flowers numerous].

Flowers

1 or 2 per node of distal leaves, pendent;

floral tube crimson, 7–15 mm;

sepals crimson, (15–)17–25(–30) mm;

petals convolute after anthesis, (8–)11–20 mm;

stamens exserted;

filaments 18–35 mm;

stigma clavate.

bisexual and protogynous [or unisexual (and plants gynodioecious, dioecious, or subdioecious)], actinomorphic, buds pendent;

floral tube deciduous (with sepals, petals, and stamens) after anthesis, well developed, cylindrical to obconical, with basal nectary, adnate or mostly free, nectary unlobed or shallowly 4–8-lobed;

sepals 4, reflexed or spreading singly in anthesis;

petals 4, [minute or absent], dark purple [shades of purple, red, or orange, rarely lavender, green, or rose-pink];

stamens 8, in 2 unequal series, [in equal series, or shorter whorl reflexed into floral tube], anthers basifixed, pollen shed singly;

ovary 4-locular, stigma subentire or 4-lobed, clavate [capitate or globose], surface wet and non-papillate.

Fruit

a fleshy berry, oblong [to ellipsoid or subglobose]; pedicellate.

Seeds

few to ca. 500, in 2 to several rows per locule, rarely in 1 row, embedded in pulp.

Berry

oblong, 10–22 mm;

pedicel (10–)20–55 mm.

xI> = 11.

2n

= 44.

Fuchsia magellanica

Fuchsia

Phenology Flowering May–Nov.
Habitat Sea bluffs, ditches, creek banks, damp thickets in partial shade or full sun.
Elevation 10–200 m. (0–700 ft.)
Distribution
from FNA
CA; OR; South America [Introduced in North America; introduced also in w Europe (Ireland), Asia (India), e Africa, Pacific Islands (Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from USDA
Mexico; Central America; South America; West Indies (Hispaniola); Pacific Islands (New Zealand, Society Islands) [Introduced in North America; introduced also in w Europe (Ireland), Asia (India), e, s Africa, Pacific Islands (Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand), Australia]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Fuchsia magellanica is known in the flora area from Alameda, Contra Costa, Humboldt, Mendocino, Monterey, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, and Sonoma counties in California, and Coos, Curry, Lane, and Lincoln counties in Oregon; it is native to the southern Andes in South America (Argentina, Chile).

Fuchsia magellanica is a member of sect. Quelusia (Vandelli) de Candolle, characterized by its shrubby-lianoid habit, opposite or whorled leaves, and distinctive floral pattern associated with hummingbird pollination, including violet, convolute petals, strongly exserted stamens, and partially connate sepals that are longer than the floral tubes. In the flora area, it is visited by Anna’s Hummingbird (Calypte anna).

In Oregon, besides the normal red and purple flowered plants, there are also naturalized populations of a much paler flowered form of Fuchsia magellanica in which the floral tubes and sepals are pale white or tinged with pink, and the petals are only slightly purple. Similar populations can be found in the wild in Patagonia, and similar color variants are naturalized in New Zealand. One particular naturalized population near Brookings, Curry County, Oregon, is different from the other naturalized F. magellanica populations, and it appears to have originated from escaped cultivars involving a cross between F. magellanica and F. coccinea Aiton, a Brazilian species also in sect. Quelusia. Another naturalized population at the northern end of Bodega Bay, Sonoma County, California, is adjacent to banks full of F. magellanica, but it is different and appears to be intermediate between F. regia Vellozo and F. coccinea. In California, additional species of Fuchsia have been reported by collections or observations. Fuchsia hybrida hort. ex Siebold & Voss, which can distinguished from F. magellanica by the longer floral tube, 10–20 mm, and sepals 25–30 mm, is a variable garden hybrid involving F. magellanica or F. regia as one of the parents. Most of the observations or collection occurrence outside of cultivation of F. hybrida usually are near buildings or gardens or on a university campus. Fuchsia boliviana Carrière, which can be separated from other others by its floral tube (25–)30–60(–70) mm, scarlet petals, and flowers in pendent racemes or few-branched panicles, was reported as naturalized based on an erroneous observation.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Species 107 (1 in the flora).

Nearly three-fourths of the species of Fuchsia occur in the northern Andes of South America, where the largest section (sect. Fuchsia) is centered. Other species occur in New Zealand (3 spp.), the Society Islands (1 sp.), Mexico, Hispaniola, Central America, and the southern Andes. All species of Fuchsia share the strong morphological synapomorphy of a fleshy berry, a fruit type unique in the family. Most species of Fuchsia characteristically have 2-aperturate pollen [3-aperturate pollen in the polyploid sections Kierschlegeria (Spach) Munz and Quelusia (Vandelli) de Candolle], are usually shrubs or subshrubs, sometimes lianas or trees, and have prolonged floral tubes on flowers that are mostly purple, red, or orange, and generally with petaloid sepals. Within the Circaeeae, P. E. Berry et al. (2004) found strong support for a monophyletic Fuchsia.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 10. FNA vol. 10.
Parent taxa Onagraceae > subfam. Onagroideae > tribe Circaeeae > Fuchsia Onagraceae > subfam. Onagroideae > tribe Circaeeae
Subordinate taxa
F. magellanica
Name authority Lamarck in J. Lamarck et al.: Encycl. 2: 565. (1788) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 1191. (1753): Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 498. (1754)
Web links