The green links below add additional plants to the comparison table. Blue links lead to other Web sites.
enable glossary links

banyan tree, Indian banyan

India rubber plant, Indian rubberplant

Habit Trees, evergreen, to 30 m. Trees, evergreen, to 12 m, epiphytic when young.

aerial, often descending to ground level and forming pillar-roots Bark of trunks and older branches brown, smooth.

aerial, abundant.


gray, smooth or slightly roughened.


puberulent, glabrescent in age.

greenish brown, glabrous.


blade ovate, 10-30 × 7-20 cm, leathery, base cordate, margins entire, apex obtuse;

surfaces abaxially puberulent, adaxially glabrous;

basal veins (2-)3-4 pairs, 1/3-1/2 length of blade, reticulations regular;

lateral veins 5-6(-7) pairs.

blade oblong-elliptic to obovate, 9-30 × 5-12 cm, leathery, base rounded, margins entire, apex abruptly short-acuminate or apiculate;

surfaces abaxially and adaxially glabrous;

basal veins 1(-2) pairs;

lateral veins 10 or more, parallel;

secondary veins inconspicuous.


paired, sessile, orange or red, depressed-globose, 1.5-2 × 2-2.5 mm, pubescent; subtending bracts ovate, 3-7 mm, puberulous;

ostiole closed by 3 flat or nearly umbonate apical bracts 3-4 mm wide.

paired, sessile, greenish yellow, oblong-ovoid, ca. 2 × ca. 1.5 cm, glabrous; subtending bracts caducous, leaving annual scar, entirely enclosing young syconia, glabrous;

ostiole closed by 3 apical bracts, umbonate.

Ficus benghalensis

Ficus elastica

Phenology Flowering all year. Flowering all year.
Habitat Disturbed thickets Disturbed sites
Elevation 0-10 m (0-0 ft) 0-10 m (0-0 ft)
from FNA
FL; Asia (native to Pakistan and India) [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
FL; West Indies (Lesser Antilles); Asia (native to India) [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]

Ficus elastica is commonly cultivated. It has not been collected recently in the area of the flora.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 3. FNA vol. 3.
Parent taxa Moraceae > Ficus Moraceae > Ficus
Sibling taxa
F. americana, F. aurea, F. benjamina, F. carica, F. citrifolia, F. elastica, F. microcarpa, F. pumila, F. religiosa
F. americana, F. aurea, F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. carica, F. citrifolia, F. microcarpa, F. pumila, F. religiosa
Synonyms Macrophthalma elastica, Urostigma elasticum
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 1059. (1753) Roxburgh ex Hornemann: Suppl. Hort. Bot. Hafn., 7. (1819)
Web links