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banyan tree, Indian banyan

weeping fig

Habit Trees, evergreen, to 30 m. Trees, evergreen, to 10 m.

aerial, often descending to ground level and forming pillar-roots Bark of trunks and older branches brown, smooth.

adventitious, occasionally hanging.


gray, smooth.


puberulent, glabrescent in age.

brown, glabrous.


blade ovate, 10-30 × 7-20 cm, leathery, base cordate, margins entire, apex obtuse;

surfaces abaxially puberulent, adaxially glabrous;

basal veins (2-)3-4 pairs, 1/3-1/2 length of blade, reticulations regular;

lateral veins 5-6(-7) pairs.

blade oblong, elliptic, lanceolate, or ovate, 4-6(-11) × 1.5-6 cm, nearly leathery, base rounded or cuneate, margins entire, apex acuminate or cuspidate;

surfaces abaxially and adaxially glabrous;

basal veins 1(-2) pairs, short;

lateral veins (6-)12(-14) pairs, regularly spaced, uniform;

secondary veins prominent.


paired, sessile, orange or red, depressed-globose, 1.5-2 × 2-2.5 mm, pubescent; subtending bracts ovate, 3-7 mm, puberulous;

ostiole closed by 3 flat or nearly umbonate apical bracts 3-4 mm wide.

solitary or paired, sessile or subsessile, orange, yellow, or dark red, nearly globose, 8-12 × 7-10 mm, glabrous; subtending bracts 2-3, crescent-shaped, 0.5-1.5 mm, glabrous;

ostiole closed by 3 small, flat, apical bracts 1.5-2 mm wide, umbonate.

Ficus benghalensis

Ficus benjamina

Phenology Flowering all year. Flowering all year.
Habitat Disturbed thickets Disturbed thickets and hammocks
Elevation 0-10 m (0-0 ft) 0-10 m (0-0 ft)
from FNA
FL; Asia (native to Pakistan and India) [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
FL; West Indies (Lesser Antilles); native to Asia [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]

Ficus benjamina is commonly cultivated as a houseplant. The name probably refers to the supposed relation of the plant to the source of a resin or benzoin procured from the Orient in antiquity.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 3. FNA vol. 3.
Parent taxa Moraceae > Ficus Moraceae > Ficus
Sibling taxa
F. americana, F. aurea, F. benjamina, F. carica, F. citrifolia, F. elastica, F. microcarpa, F. pumila, F. religiosa
F. americana, F. aurea, F. benghalensis, F. carica, F. citrifolia, F. elastica, F. microcarpa, F. pumila, F. religiosa
Synonyms Urostigma benjamina
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 1059. (1753) Linnaeus: Mant. Pl., 129. (1767)
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