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black bindweed, climbing bindweed, climbing knotweed, Eurasian black bindweed, ivy bindweed

fringe bindweed, fringe black bindweed

Habit Herbs, annual, not rhizomatous, 0.5–1 m. Herbs, perennial, not rhizomatous, 1–5 m.
Stems

scandent or sprawling, branched proximally, herbaceous, puberulent, sometimes mealy, not glaucous.

usually scandent or sprawling, rarely erect, freely branched, herbaceous, pilose-hispid or, rarely, subglabrous, not glaucous.

Leaves

ocrea persistent or deciduous, tan or greenish brown, cylindric, 2–4 mm, margins oblique, face not fringed with reflexed hairs and slender bristles at base, otherwise glabrous or scabrid;

petiole 0.5–5 cm, puberulent in lines;

blade cordate-ovate, cordate-hastate, or sagittate, 2–6(–15) × 2–5(–10) cm, base cordate, margins wavy, scabrid, apex acuminate, abaxial face usually mealy and, rarely, minutely dotted, not glaucous, adaxial face glabrous.

ocrea usually deciduous, light brown, cylindric, 3–4 mm, margins oblique, base fringed with reflexed hairs and slender bristles, face glabrous or puberulent;

petiole 1–6 cm, retrorsely pubescent;

blade cordate-ovate, cordate-hastate, or cordate-sagittate, 2–6(–12) × 2–5(–10) cm, base cordate, margins wavy, often reddish-ciliate, apex acute to acuminate, abaxial face pilose-hispid, not minutely dotted, not glaucous, adaxial face glabrous.

Inflorescences

axillary, erect or spreading, spikelike, 2–10(–15) cm, axes puberulent;

peduncle 0.1–10 cm or absent, glabrous or scabrid distally in lines.

terminal and axillary, erect or spreading, paniclelike, 4–10(–15) cm, axes reddish-pilose;

peduncle 1–12 cm, retrorsely pubescent.

Pedicels

ascending or spreading, articulated distally, 1–3 mm, glabrous or, rarely, scabrid.

ascending or spreading, articulated near middle or distally, 3–4 mm, glabrous or puberulent.

Flowers

bisexual, 3–6 per ocreate fascicle;

perianth nonaccrescent, greenish white, often with pinkish or purplish base, 3–5 mm including stipelike base, glabrous or outer 3 with blunt, hyaline hairs;

tepals elliptic to obovate, apex obtuse to acute, outer 3 obscurely keeled;

stamens 8;

filaments flattened proximally, glabrous;

styles connate distally;

stigmas capitate.

bisexual, 4–7 per ocreate fascicle;

perianth nonaccrescent, greenish white to white, 1.5–2 mm including stipelike base, glabrous;

tepals elliptic, apex obtuse to acute, outer 3 obscurely keeled;

stamens 6–8;

filaments flattened proximally, pubescent proximally;

styles connate basally;

stigmas capitate.

Achenes

included, black, 4–5(–6) × 1.8–2.3 mm, dull, minutely granular-tuberculate, especially on faces; fruiting perianth glabrous or with blunt, hyaline hairs, wings absent or, rarely, flat to undulate, 0.4–0.9 mm wide at maturity, scarcely decurrent on stipelike base, margins entire.

included or exserted, brownish black to black, 3–4 × 1.8–2.4 mm, shiny, smooth; fruiting perianth glabrous, wings absent.

2n

= 40.

= 22.

Fallopia convolvulus

Fallopia cilinodis

Phenology Flowering May–Oct. Flowering Jun–Oct.
Habitat Cultivated ground, waste places Dry woods, thickets, clearings
Elevation 0-2700 m (0-8900 ft) 0-900 m (0-3000 ft)
Distribution
from FNA
AK; AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; WY; AB; BC; MB; NB; NL; NS; ON; PE; QC; SK; YT; SPM; Greenland; Eurasia [Introduced in North America; introduced in South America (Argentina, Chile), Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Republic of South Africa), Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CT; GA; IL; IN; KY; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; NC; NH; NJ; NY; OH; PA; RI; TN; VA; VT; WI; WV; MB; NB; NF; NS; ON; PE; QC; SK
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Fallopia convolvulus can be an aggressive weed in crop fields. Rare plants with winged fruiting perianths have been named var. subalata; that characteristic often varies within populations.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Á. Löve and D. Löve (1982) reported a chromosome count of 2n = 20 for Fallopia cilinodis. All other counts summarized by J. P. Bailey and C. A. Stace (1992) and counts by M. H. Kim et al. (2000) are 2n = 22. It is not known if the 2n = 20 count is an error.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 5, p. 545. FNA vol. 5, p. 544.
Parent taxa Polygonaceae > subfam. Polygonoideae > Fallopia Polygonaceae > subfam. Polygonoideae > Fallopia
Sibling taxa
F. baldschuanica, F. cilinodis, F. dumetorum, F. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. scandens, F. ×bohemica
F. baldschuanica, F. convolvulus, F. dumetorum, F. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. scandens, F. ×bohemica
Synonyms Polygonum convolvulus, Bilderdykia convolvulus, F. convolvulus var. subalata, Reynoutria convolvulus, Tiniaria convolvulus Polygonum cilinode, Bilderdykia cilinodis, Bilderdykia cilinodis var. laevigata, Polygonum cilinode var. laevigatum, Reynoutria cilinodis, Tiniaria cilinodis
Name authority (Linnaeus) Á. Löve: Taxon 29: 300. (1970) (Michaux) Holub: Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 6: 176. (1971)
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