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mad woman's milk, summer spurge, sun spurge, wart spurge, wartweed

Habit Herbs, annual, with taproot.
Stems

erect, unbranched or branched, 5–45 cm, usually glabrous or sparsely pilose.

Leaves

petiole absent or to 0.5 mm;

blade obovate-spatulate, 4–40 × 2–25 mm, base cuneate, attenuate, or auriculate, margins serrulate, apex rounded, surfaces glabrous;

venation pinnate, midvein prominent.

Involucre

cupulate, 1.5–2 × 0.7–1.1 mm, glabrous;

glands 4, elliptic, 0.2–0.5 × 0.5–1 mm;

horns absent.

Staminate flowers

10–15.

Pistillate flowers

ovary glabrous;

styles 0.7–1 mm, 2-fid.

Capsules

depressed-globose, 2.5–4 × 3.2–4.2 mm, clearly 3-lobed;

cocci rounded, smooth, glabrous;

columella 0.9–1.1 mm.

Seeds

dark brown to blackish, subovoid, 1.6–2.2 × 1.5–1.9 mm, reticulate;

caruncle elliptic, 0.9–1.1 × 0.4–0.5 mm.

Cyathial

arrangement: terminal pleiochasial branches (3–)5, each 1–2 times 2-branched;

pleiochasial bracts obovate, wider than distal leaves;

dichasial bracts distinct, obovate or rhombic, ± oblique, base rounded, truncate, or attenuate, margins serrulate, apex rounded;

axillary cymose branches 0.

Cyathia

peduncle 0.2–1 mm.

Euphorbia helioscopia

Phenology Flowering and fruiting spring–fall.
Habitat Roadsides, waste places.
Elevation 0–1400 m. [0–4600 ft.]
Discussion

Euphorbia helioscopia was collected once in Minnesota in the late 1800s but apparently did not become established there.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Distribution
from FNA
CA; CT; DC; DE; GA; ID; IL; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MT; NC; NH; NJ; NY; OH; OR; PA; SC; TN; TX; VA; VT; WA; WI; WY; AB; BC; NB; NF; NS; ON; PE; QC; SK; Europe; Asia; n Africa [Introduced in North America; introduced also in South America (Argentina, Chile)]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Parent taxa Euphorbiaceae > Euphorbia > subg. Esula
Sibling taxa
E. aaron-rossii, E. abramsiana, E. acuta, E. agraria, E. albomarginata, E. alta, E. angusta, E. antisyphilitica, E. arizonica, E. astyla, E. austrotexana, E. bicolor, E. bifurcata, E. bilobata, E. blodgettii, E. bombensis, E. brachycera, E. capitellata, E. carunculata, E. chaetocalyx, E. chamaesula, E. cinerascens, E. commutata, E. conferta, E. cordifolia, E. corollata, E. crenulata, E. cumulicola, E. cuphosperma, E. curtisii, E. cyathophora, E. cyparissias, E. davidii, E. deltoidea, E. dendroides, E. dentata, E. discoidalis, E. eriantha, E. exigua, E. exserta, E. exstipulata, E. falcata, E. fendleri, E. florida, E. floridana, E. garberi, E. georgiana, E. geyeri, E. glyptosperma, E. golondrina, E. gracillima, E. graminea, E. helleri, E. heterophylla, E. hexagona, E. hirta, E. hooveri, E. humistrata, E. hypericifolia, E. hyssopifolia, E. indivisa, E. innocua, E. inundata, E. ipecacuanhae, E. jaegeri, E. jejuna, E. laredana, E. lasiocarpa, E. lata, E. lathyris, E. longicruris, E. lurida, E. macropus, E. maculata, E. marginata, E. meganaesos, E. melanadenia, E. mendezii, E. mercurialina, E. mesembrianthemifolia, E. micromera, E. misera, E. missurica, E. myrsinites, E. nephradenia, E. nutans, E. oblongata, E. ocellata, E. ophthalmica, E. ouachitana, E. parishii, E. parryi, E. pediculifera, E. peplidion, E. peplus, E. perennans, E. pergamena, E. pinetorum, E. platyphyllos, E. platysperma, E. polycarpa, E. polygonifolia, E. polyphylla, E. porteriana, E. prostrata, E. pubentissima, E. purpurea, E. radians, E. rayturneri, E. revoluta, E. roemeriana, E. rosescens, E. schizoloba, E. serpens, E. serpillifolia, E. serrata, E. serrula, E. setiloba, E. simulans, E. spathulata, E. stictospora, E. strictior, E. telephioides, E. terracina, E. tetrapora, E. texana, E. theriaca, E. thymifolia, E. tithymaloides, E. trachysperma, E. trichotoma, E. vallis-mortae, E. velleriflora, E. vermiculata, E. villifera, E. virgata, E. wrightii, E. yaquiana
Synonyms Galarhoeus helioscopius, Tithymalus helioscopius
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 459. (1753)
Source Flora of North America vol. 12, p. 303.
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