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Columbia Gorge daisy, Columbia Gorge fleabane, Gorge daisy, Gorge fleabane, Oregon fleabane

daisy, erigeron, fleabane, fleabane daisy

Habit Perennials, 5–15 cm; stoutly taprooted, caudices usually simple. Annuals, biennials, or perennials [subshrubs, shrubs, trees], (0.5–)2–90(–100) cm (taprooted, fibrous-rooted, or rhizomatous and fibrous-rooted, sometimes with simple or branched caudices, sometimes stoloniferous).
Stems

decumbent to basally ascending or erect, moderately villous, stipitate-glandular.

erect to ascending, decumbent, or prostrate, simple or branched, glabrous or hairy, sometimes glandular (hairs 2-seriate, minute, sometimes stipitate).

Leaves

basal (persistent) and cauline;

basal blades (1-nerved or weakly 3-nerved) obovate to spatulate, mostly 20–60(–100) × 5–15(–25) mm, margins usually coarsely dentate or incised, sometimes shallowly serrate, faces sparsely to moderately villous, stipitate-glandular;

cauline gradually or little reduced distally (bases not clasping).

basal and/or cauline (basal persistent or not to flowering); alternate;

sessile or petiolate;

blades 1-nerved (3-nerved), linear to lanceolate, oblanceolate, or spatulate (bases sometimes clasping), margins entire or ± dentate to pinnatifid, faces glabrous or hairy, sometimes glandular.

Heads

1(–4) (on branches from proximal axils).

usually radiate, sometimes discoid or disciform (erect, nodding, or arching-pendent in bud), borne singly or in loose, corymbiform or paniculiform arrays.

Involucres

5–7 × 9–13 mm.

turbinate to hemispheric, 5–35 mm diam.

Receptacles

flat to conic, pitted, epaleate.

Ray florets

30–60;

corollas white to pink, 5–8 mm, laminae not coiling or reflexing.

0 or 12–350 in 1(–2+) series, pistillate, fertile;

corollas usually white to bluish or purplish to pink, less commonly yellow (coiling from apices, reflexing at tube/lamina junction, or remaining ± straight and spreading).

Disc florets

25–450, bisexual, fertile;

corollas yellow (nerves orange-resinous), tubes shorter than usually tubular, sometimes strongly inflated and indurate throats, lobes 5, erect to spreading, deltate;

style-branch appendages mostly deltate (papillate).

Disc corollas

3.4–4.7 mm.

Phyllaries

in 2–3 series, moderately villous, minutely stipitate-glandular.

30–125(–150) in 2–5 series, 1- or 3-nerved (nerves golden-resinous; usually flat, rarely broadly keeled to convex), narrowly elliptic- to linear-lanceolate, unequal to equal, margins scarious or not, faces hairy or glabrous, sometimes glandular.

Cypselae

flattened, 1.2–1.4 mm, 2-nerved, faces sparsely strigose;

pappi: outer of setae, inner of 15–20 bristles (weakly barbellate and curled and twisted to at least distal 1/2).

(tan) oblong to oblong-obovoid, compressed to flattened, 2(–4)-nerved, or subterete, 5–14-nerved (sect. Wyomingia and some other species), faces glabrous or strigose or sericeous, eglandular;

pappi persistent or readily falling, usually of outer setae or scales (0.1–0.4 mm), sometimes connate, plus 5–40(–50), stramineous, barbellate bristles, sometimes pappi only on ray or only on disc cypselae, or 0.

Peripheral

florets (disciform heads) 50–200 in 1–4 series, pistillate.

x

= 9.

Erigeron oreganus

Erigeron

Phenology Flowering May–Sep.
Habitat Moist shady cliffs and ledges
Elevation 20–400 m [100–1300 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
OR; WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from USDA
Nearly worldwide; mostly in temperate regions
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Erigeron oreganus grows in the Columbia River Gorge, primarily on the north side.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Species ca. 390 (173 in the flora).

The North American and Central American species of Erigeron have been divided into sections (G. L. Nesom 1989c, 1990g, 1994b; Nesom and R. D. Noyes 1999), emphasizing variation in habit (especially taprooted versus rhizomatous and fibrous-rooted), vestiture, arrangement of heads in arrays and orientation before flowering (erect, nodding, or arching-pendent), behavior of ray corolla laminae (straight, reflexing, or coiling), cypsela and pappus morphology, and other morphologic features. The sequence and groupings of species treated here reflect significant modifications of earlier arrangements.

G. L. Nesom (1989d) hypothesized that Trimorpha [Erigeron sect. Trimorpha (Cassini) de Candolle] is separate from Erigeron, more closely related to Conyza. Studies by W. Huber and colleagues (e.g., Huber 1993; Huber and Ö. Nilsson 1995) and R. D. Noyes (2000) have shown that Trimorpha species are closely related to those of sect. Erigeron and that both sections are relatively recently derived within the genus. As suggested by Nesom (1994b) and by Huber and Nilsson, and as discussed in detail and experimentally confirmed by Noyes, autogamous breeding systems apparently have arisen independently in groups of Astereae, including Trimorpha and Conyza, where the pistillate florets of a head are greatly increased in number (often outnumbering the bisexual florets), in multiple series, the inner sometimes with filiform, elaminate corollas, and the outer with reduced laminae.

In the molecular analysis by R. D. Noyes (2000), Conyzinae comprises Erigeron, American Conyza, the four genera of the South American Leptostelma group, and the North American Aphanostephus; the cladistically basal and terminal taxa of the subtribe are members of Erigeron. Noyes (p. 107) observed that “strictly speaking, although the Conyzinae form a monophyletic group [with caveats regarding Old World Conyza], Erigeron is paraphyletic, as five other genera are derived from within it.” The molecular study included 46 of the 173 species treated here.

Polyploidy is common among species of Erigeron, and agamospermy apparently is a common correlate of polyploidy, especially in odd-polyploid plants. Molecular phylogenetic data (R. D. Noyes 2000) indicate that agamospermy has arisen at least three times within the genus.

In the descriptions and keys, some characteristics are assumed constant unless otherwise indicated (usually in parentheses); particular application of terms is discussed here. The indumentum of erigerons is often complex; in order to simplify descriptions, glabrous applies here only to absence of non-glandular hairs, eglandular to the absence of glandular hairs; a totally glabrous plant (in the usual sense) would be glabrous and eglandular. Petiole margins are eciliate or sparsely ciliate unless otherwise indicated. Leaf bases of most erigerons are broadened or not, not thickened and white-indurate. Margins of leaves in some erigerons are entire but for tiny callous enations that correspond to the callous tips of teeth on some leaves with serrate margins. Here, margins with such tiny enations are described as denticulate. Heads of some erigerons are “pseudodisciform” in the sense that the outer pistillate florets have relatively small, ± filiform laminae (such florets are technically “ray florets” even though their “rays” are inconspicuous) and the inner pistillate florets have no laminae on their corollas. The distinction between corollas without and those with laminae is sometimes arbitrary. Ray laminae are considered strap-shaped and spreading unless otherwise indicated. Descriptions of ray color as “blue” should be read as lavender-blue.

Artificial distinctions are used in the key to groups of species recognized by leafy runners, pinnately lobed or dissected leaves, discoid or disciform heads, and yellow rays. Otherwise, species tend to be identified within natural groups. Couplets that use basal parts for distinction or inference of duration may be difficult if collections lack diagnostic basal parts or if the nature of the basal parts is not clear. Yet, these differences are significant in delimiting species groups and often critical in identification, and the pertinent species otherwise would be scattered widely in a more artificial key.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key

Key to Groups of Erigeron Species

1. Heads discoid or disciform (pistillate florets 0 or their corollas filiform, lacking laminae)
Group 1
1. Heads radiate (corollas of pistillate florets bearing laminae, laminae sometimes filiform and hardly surpassing involucres, especially Groups 8 and 11)
→ 2
2. Plants with herbaceous, leafy runners or slender, scale-leaved rhizomes.
Group 2
2. Plants without leafy runners or scale-leaved rhizomes
→ 3
3. Leaves pinnately lobed or dissected
Group 3
3. Leaves usually entire or dentate, rarely with 1–2 pairs of coarse lobes
→ 4
4. Annuals, biennials, or short-lived perennials
→ 5
4. Perennials
→ 9
5. Pappus bristles absent on ray and/or disc cypselae
Group 4
5. Pappus bristles present on ray and disc cypselae
→ 6
6. Ray laminae nearly filiform, erect
→ 7
6. Ray laminae strap-shaped, usually spreading
→ 8
7. Heads usually in loose, racemiform arrays; pistillate florets in 1 series, all with filiform laminae; pappus bristles not accrescent
E. lonchophyllus
7. Heads usually in corymbiform arrays; pistillate florets in 2 zones, outer with nearly filiform laminae, inner tubular and essentially elaminate; pappus bristles accrescent (elongating in fruit to ca. 2 times involucres)
Group 8
8. Plants fibrous-rooted
Group 5
8. Plants taprooted
Group 6
9. Leaves 3-lobed or 3-dentate at apices; plants usually with relatively slender, rhizomelike caudex branches (rarely in E. compositus)
Group 7
9. Leaves not 3-lobed or 3-dentate at apices; plants with or without slender caudex branches
→ 10
10. Pistillate florets in 2 zones, outer with nearly filiform, erect laminae, sometimes shorter than involucres, inner tubular and essentially elaminate; pappus bristles accrescent (elongating in fruit to ca. 2 times involucres)
Group 8
10. Pistillate florets all with strap-shaped, spreading laminae, occasionally reduced, nearly filiform and erect (in some arctic, monocephalous species); pappus bristles not accrescent (except in E. uniflorus var. eriocephalus).
→ 11
11. Rays yellow
Group 9
11. Rays white or blue to pink
→ 12
12. Plants fibrous-rooted (usually rhizomatous, rhizomes sometimes abbreviated or apparently lacking in E. glabellus) or without an evident taproot (taproot weakly developed or not collected because of extensive rhizome or caudex system)
→ 13
12. Plants usually evidently taprooted (sometimes also with branched caudices)
→ 16
13. Rhizomes or caudex branches slender (without apparent well-defined central axes); ray laminae strap-shaped
Group 10
13. Rhizomes thickened (usually evident as single central axes; abbreviated or apparently lacking in E. glabellus); ray laminae filiform or strap-shaped
→ 14
14. Basal and proximal cauline leaves reduced or present only as scales (cauline largest at midstem); ray laminae not coiling; cypselae 5–6-nerved, glabrous
E. hyssopifolius
14. Basal and proximal cauline leaves usually well developed (sometimes withering by flowering); ray laminae usually coiling, often tardily or only at tips (filiform and straight in some species of Group 11); cypselae mostly 2(–4)-nerved (4–7-nerved in E. glacialis and E. howellii), usually strigose
→ 15
15. Plants 2–25(–35) cm; leaves mostly basal (bases of cauline not clasping orsubclasping); heads 1–3
Group 11
15. Plants (5–)15–90 cm; leaves basal and cauline or mostly cauline (bases ofcauline usually clasping to subclasping); heads 1–21
Group 12
16. Perennials (short-lived), caudices usually not branched (stems and leaves arisingfrom near roots)
Group 13
16. Perennials, caudices usually branched
→ 17
17. Leaves all or mostly cauline (basal not markedly larger than cauline, internodes relatively short), blades linear or filiform to narrowly oblong, essentially uniform; California and immediately adjacent areas
Group 14
17. Leaves mostly basal or basal and cauline (if basal withering by flowering, then persistent leaf bases usually evident), oblanceolate, obovate, or spatulate (if linear or filiform then basal larger than cauline and internodes relatively wide); w North America
→ 18
18. Proximal leaves loosely clustered (not in persistent rosettes, usually with evident internodes), blades oblanceolate or linear to filiform; stems and leaves ± strigose
→ 19
18. Proximal leaves tightly clustered (usually in persistent rosettes, internodes not readily evident), blades 1- or 3-nerved, linear to oblanceolate, obovate, or spatulate; stems and leaves strigose to hirsute, villous, or lanate-villous
→ 20
19. Plants 20–70 cm; leaves oblanceolate; pappi readily falling, of (8–)10–12 bristles; stems not more densely hairy proximally than distally
E. neomexicanus
19. Plants 10–30(–50) cm; leaves linear to filiform; pappi persistent, of 20–30 bristles; stems more densely white-strigose proximally than distally (hairs loosely appressed to ascending, fine)
E. filifolius
20. Basal leaves obovate-spatulate, 5–25 mm wide, cauline little reduced distally or relatively even-sized, bases usually subclasping (except in E. oreganus); heads usually 1, sometimes 2–5 from proximal axils
Group 17
20. Basal leaves linear to oblanceolate or spatulate, (0.5–)1–13(–15) mm wide, cauline usually gradually or abruptly reduced distally, bases not clasping or subclasping; heads 1–16
→ 21
21. Petioles prominently ciliate (hairs spreading, thick-based); leaves mostly linear to narrowly oblanceolate
→ 22
21. Petioles not prominently ciliate (or if so, hairs thin-based or ascending to loosely appressed); leaves linear to obovate or spatulate
→ 23
22. Leaves basal and cauline or sometimes mostly basal; heads 1–5; ray laminae reflexing (coiling in E. davisii, added to key for contrast with E. engelmannii)
Group 15
22. Leaves mostly basal; heads 1; ray laminae sometimes coiling, not reflexing
Group 16
23. Stems and leaves glabrous or glabrate (minutely glandular in E. nauseosus, sometimes minutely glandular distally in E. arenarioides); phyllaries minutely glandular, rarely also sparsely strigose or hirsuto-villous (sometimes glabrous, eglandular), often purplish; ray laminae reflexing, coiling, or straight and spreading
Group 18
23. Stems and/or leaves strigose or sericeous to hirsute or villous; phyllaries strigose to hirsute, sometimes glandular, rarely purplish; ray laminae coiling or straight and spreading (reflexing in E. parishii and E. canus)
→ 24
24. Stems with spreading hairs
Group 19
24. Stems with appressed hairs
→ 25
25. Stems ascending to decumbent, sometimes purplish proximally; basal leaves (1–)3-nerved, usually linear to oblanceolate, sometimes obovate; stems and leavesstrigose to hirsute
Group 20
25. Stems mostly erect, usually not purplish proximally; basal leaves linear to oblanceolate or spatulate; stems and leaves usually strigose or sericeous (hairs usually whitish, closely appressed, even-length)
→ 26
26. Leaves mostly spatulate
Group 21
26. Leaves linear to oblanceolate
→ 27
27. Leaf bases of basal and proximal cauline leaves abruptly widened, thickened, and white-indurate
Group 22
27. Leaf bases sometimes widened, not thickened and white-indurate
Group 23

Group 1

1. Leaves basal or basal and cauline, cauline reduced distally or bractlike (except in E. lassenianus); heads discoid or disciform; w United States
→ 2
1. Leaves cauline (basal usually withering by flowering), usually relatively even-sized distally; heads discoid; California, Nevada, Oregon
→ 9
2. Stems ascending to decumbent or prostrate-ascending; leaves basal and cauline, cauline usually continuing relatively even-sized nearly to heads; heads (1–)3–7, discoid
E. lassenianus
2. Stems usually erect to ascending; leaves mostly basal, cauline reduced distally or bractlike; heads usually 1(–4 in E. aphanactis), discoid or disciform; w United States
→ 3
3. Leaves pinnatifid (lobes linear)
E. mancus
3. Leaves not pinnatifid, sometimes ternately dissected or lobed
→ 4
4. Pistillate florets 0 (heads discoid)
→ 5
4. Pistillate florets 20–100, corollas tubular, laminae absent or not surpassing involucres (heads disciform)
→ 6
5. Stems strigose or glabrous; leaf bases white-indurate (usually thickened)
E. bloomeri
5. Stems densely hirsutulous (hairs deflexed to spreading-hirsute) at least proximally; leaf bases greenish, herbaceous (not thickened)
E. ovinus
6. Leaves ternately dissected or lobed
E. compositus
6. Leaves not ternately dissected or lobed
→ 7
7. Stems bracteate; heads 1; disc corolla throats not indurate or inflated; pappus bristles 15–25 (outer pappi of inconspicuous setae; carpopodiayellowish)
E. chrysopsidis
7. Stems leafy to bracteate; heads 1–4; disc corolla throats white-indurate and somewhat inflated; pappus bristles 7–20 (outer pappi of subulate scales or setae; carpopodia whitish)
→ 8
8. Perennials; disc corollas conspicuously puberulent
E. aphanactis
8. Biennials or short-lived perennials; disc corollas glabrate
E. calvus
9. Leaves linear
→ 10
9. Leaves oblanceolate to narrowly oblong-oblanceolate
→ 12
10. Phyllaries eglandular
E. inornatus
10. Phyllaries minutely glandular
→ 11
11. Plants 30–90 cm; stems erect, arising from woody rootcrowns; involucres 5.5–7.5 mm; phyllary apices purplish; pappus bristles 26–38
E. greenei
11. Plants 8–20(–30) cm; stems erect or ascending, usually arising singly from rhizomelike caudex branches; involucres 4–6 mm; phyllary apices greenish orpurplish (var. angustatus); pappus bristles 20–61
E. reductus
12. Stems arising from rhizomelike caudex branches; leaves usually reduced distally; involucres 14–20 mm diam
E. supplex
12. Stems arising from woody taproots; leaves seldom reduced distally; involucres 7–15 mm diam
→ 13
13. Stems and leaves eglandular; phyllaries eglandular or sparsely to densely glandular
→ 14
13. Stems (at least distally) and leaves glandular (variably invested with nonglandular hairs); phyllaries densely glandular
→ 16
14. Stems glabrous or sparsely appressed-hairy; phyllaries usually eglandular
E. inornatus
14. Stems hirsutulous to hispido-pilose; phyllaries eglandular or glandular
→ 15
15. Stems densely hirsutulous (hairs usually ± deflexed, sometimes loosely antrorsely ascending); phyllaries eglandular or sparsely glandular
E. inornatus
15. Stems sparsely hispido-pilose, hairs usually stiff, spreading, sometimes antrorsely ascending or appressed; phyllaries densely glandular
E. petrophilus
16. Plants 30–90 cm; stems ascending-erect; leaves 20–40 mm; involucres 12– 15 mm diam
E. biolettii
16. Plants 5–20(–30) cm; stems ascending to decumbent; leaves 7–25 mm; involucres 7–12 mm diam
→ 17
17. Involucres (3.5–)4–5 mm
E. miser
17. Involucres 5.5–7(–8) mm
E. petrophilus

Group 2

1. Cauline leaves: bases not clasping
→ 2
1. Cauline leaves: bases clasping to subclasping
→ 4
2. Basal and proximal cauline leaves: margins usually coarsely serrate or crenate (distal teeth 2–5 pairs); involucres 6–8 mm; ray florets 225–350, laminae filiform, tightly coiling; coastal, Louisiana, Texas
E. procumbens
2. Basal and proximal cauline leaves: margins entire or shallowly dentate; involucres 3–5(–6) mm; ray florets 40–130, laminae strap-shaped, not coiling; inland, w United States
→ 3
3. Stems densely hirsutulous (hairs usually slightly deflexed); stoloniform branches usually without terminal plantlets
E. tracyi
3. Stems strigose, often sparsely so, hairs strongly antrorsely appressed to closely ascending; stoloniform branches usually with terminal plantlets
E. flagellaris
4. Stems usually abruptly dilated immediately proximal to heads, villous; leaf marginsusually dentate to denticulate, rarely entire; e United States
E. pulchellus
4. Stems not dilated proximal to heads, nearly glabrous, strigose, or hirsute to hirtellous proximally; leaf margins entire or serrulate to serrate; w United States
→ 5
5. Plants 5–15 cm; stems sparsely pilose (hairs spreading-ascending), strigose near bases, eglandular; involucres 4–5 × 8–10 mm; ray florets 32–45, laminae 8–11 mm; pappus bristles 15–19
E. kuschei
5. Plants 15–60 cm; stems hirsute to hirtellous, minutely glandular to eglandular; involucres 6–9 × 9–19 mm; ray florets 40–99, laminae 11–20 mm; pappus bristles 20–32
→ 6
6. Stems glabrous, sometimes sparsely hirsuto-pilose proximal to heads, minutely glandular or eglandular; basal leaves usually persistent, mostly spatulate; phyllaries minutely glandular, otherwise usually glabrous, sometimes sparsely villous at bases
E. eximius
6. Stems hirsute to hirtellous (hairs retrorsely spreading), sometimes sparsely glandular; basal leaves usually withering by flowering, elliptic-ovate to spatulate-obovate; phyllaries pilose-hirsute, sometimes minutely glandular
E. rybius

Group 3

1. Annuals
→ 2
1. Perennials
→ 4
2. Stems and phyllaries sparsely hispido-pilose (hairs spreading, straight), densely stipitate-glandular
E. lobatus
2. Stems and phyllaries densely and evenly puberulous-hirsutulous (hairs spreading, often crinkly), sometimes minutely glandular as well
→ 3
3. Stems densely and evenly puberulous-hirsutulous (hairs spreading to spreading-descending or -ascending, often crinkly), minutely glandular at least distally, usually throughout; involucres 3–4 × (5–)7–11 mm; rays 75–150
E. divergens
3. Stems usually sparsely strigose, sometimes sparsely hirsutulous distally, sometimes minutely glandular near heads; involucres 2–3.5 × 5.5–7.5 mm; rays 37–85
E. religiosus
4. Plants 20–70 cm; heads (1–)5–25(–50); rays white, laminae reflexing; pappi readily falling, of (8–)10–12 bristles
→ 5
4. Plants (1.5–)2–16(–25) cm; heads 1–4; rays blue to white or pinkish, laminae reflexing or not; pappi persistent, bristles 7–30
→ 6
5. Stems, leaves, and phyllaries eglandular or glands minute and non-capitate, otherwise usually moderately to densely strigose (hairs sometimes spreading, 0.1–2 mm)
E. neomexicanus
5. Stems, leaves, and phyllaries densely glandular (glands relatively large, capitate), otherwise glabrous or stems sparsely hirsuto-villous (hairs 0.6–2 mm)
E. oreophilus
6. Cauline leaves abruptly reduced distally or nearly absent, usually minutely glandular; heads 1; rays 40–70, corollas usually blue; pappus bristles 25–30; sites at 2700–3700(–4000) m
E. pinnatisectus
6. Cauline leaves gradually reduced distally, eglandular; heads 1–4; rays 20–38(–46), corollas usually white to pinkish; pappus bristles 7–19; sites at 1200–3100 m
→ 7
7. Caudex branches not retaining old leaf bases; ray laminae not reflexing
E. sionis
7. Caudex branches retaining old leaf bases; ray laminae reflexing
E. pringlei

Group 4

1. Pappus bristles absent on ray and disc cypselae
E. versicolor
1. Pappus bristles absent on ray cypselae, 8–15 on disc cypselae
→ 2
2. Stems sparsely piloso-hispid (hairs spreading), sometimes strigose distally; leaves: basal usually withering by flowering, cauline little reduced proximal to midstem, blades lanceolate to oblong or ovate, margins coarsely serrate to nearly entire
E. annuus
2. Stems ± strigose to strigillose or hirsuto-strigillose (hairs usually ascending, rarely spreading); leaves: basal usually persistent to flowering, blades spatulate to broadly or narrowly oblanceolate to linear, cauline usually gradually reduced distally, margins entire or ± serrate or crenate
E. strigosus

Group 5

1. Heads mostly 1, sometimes 2–3
→ 2
1. Heads usually 3–50(–100+), sometimes 1 (earliest season)
→ 6
2. Stems greenish proximally
→ 3
2. Stems usually reddish proximally
→ 4
3. Stems hirsutulous (hairs spreading-deflexed)
E. tracyi
3. Stems strigose (hairs antrorsely appressed)
E. flagellaris
4. Stems branched mostly on distal 1/3 – 1/4, strigose, rarely hirsute proximally
E. tenuis
4. Stems branched mostly at or proximal to midstem, usually pilose to villous (hairs spreading to spreading-deflexed) proximally, strigose distally
→ 5
5. Caudices usually woody, without basal offsets; pappi: outer of setae, inner of (5–)12–17 bristles
E. modestus
5. Caudices not woody, with rhizomelike, relatively slender, lignescent, basal offsets 1–7 cm; pappi: outer of scales, inner of 8–11 bristles
E. vicinus
6. Leaves mostly basal (usually fleshy-thickened, cauline mostly bractlike), margins entireor denticulate to mucronulate; cypselae 4-nerved, 1.2–1.6 mm
E. vernus
6. Leaves basal and cauline (not fleshy-thickened), margins entire or dentate, serrate, crenate, or pinnately lobed; cypselae 2-nerved, 0.6–1.2 mm or 1.1–1.5 mm
→ 7
7. Roots and proximalmost portions of caudices woody
E. modestus
7. Roots and caudices not woody
→ 8
8. Leaves usually entire, sometimes shallowly dentate; ray laminae tardily coiling; disc corollas 4–5.5 mm; cypselae 1.2–1.5 mm
E. glabellus
8. Leaves serrate or crenate to pinnately lobed; ray laminae not coiling; disc corollas 1.5–3.2 mm; cypselae 0.6–1.2 mm
→ 9
9. Stems usually reddish proximally; cauline leaf bases not clasping orsubclasping; ray corollas 3–5 mm
E. tenuis
9. Stems green proximally; cauline leaf bases clasping to subclasping; ray corollas 4–10 mm
→ 10
10. Stems usually leafy to arrays; involucres 4–6 × 6–15 mm; ray florets 150–250(–400), corollas usually white or pinkish, 5–10 mm; pappus bristles 15–20(–30)
E. philadelphicus
10. Stems usually leafy proximally (leaves 0 or reduced to bracts proximal to arrays); involucres 2.5–4 × 4.5–10 mm; ray florets 100–150, corollas usually blue, sometimes white to pink, 4–6 mm; pappus bristles 10–15
E. quercifolius

Group 6

1. Stems ± strigose (hairs straight) at least distally, sometimes spreading-villous to deflexed-villous proximally
→ 2
1. Stems hispido-pilose, hirsute, hirsutulous (hairs upcurved), or puberulous-hirsutulous.
→ 7
2. Stems spreading- to deflexed-villous proximally, ± strigose (hairs straight) distally
→ 3
2. Stems strigose throughout (sometimes sparsely hirsutulous distally in E. religiosus)
→ 5
3. Annuals or biennials with thick taproots; stems sometimes lignescent proximally; leaf bases not clasping or subclasping
E. modestus
3. Annuals (short-lived) with slender taproots; stems herbaceous; leaf bases commonly clasping to subclasping
→ 4
4. Stems erect; cauline leaf bases sometimes barely subclasping; ray florets 44–70, corollas 3–6 mm; pappus bristles 9–11
E. geiseri
4. Stems initially erect, later ascending to decumbent; cauline leaf bases clasping; ray florets 95–160(–250), corollas 2.5–4 mm; pappus bristles 10–13(–15)
E. tenellus
5. Plants 3–15 cm; stems erect (usually 1 and simple); heads usually 1
E. flagellaris
5. Plants 6–30(–40) cm; stems decumbent-ascending (often multiple from bases, commonly branched from midstems); heads initially 1, sometimes more from axillary branches
→ 6
6. Basal and proximal cauline leaves 10–70 × 2–8(–13) mm, margins usually entire, sometimes dentate or pinnately divided; involucres 2–3.5 mm; cypselae 0.8–1.2 mm; pappus bristles 6–12
E. religiosus
6. Basal and proximal cauline leaves 10–30 × 2–6 mm, margins entire; involucres 3.5–4 mm; cypselae 0.7–0.9 mm; pappus bristles 5–8
E. multiceps
7. Leaf margins lobed, often pinnatifid
→ 8
7. Leaf margins entire or dentate, uncommonly with 1–2 pairs of coarse, rounded lobes
→ 9
8. Stems sparsely hispido-pilose, densely stipitate-glandular; pappi of scales and bristles
E. lobatus
8. Stems hirsutulous (hairs upcurved), sometimes minutely glandular; pappi of bristles (lacking outer series of setae)
E. bellidiastrum
9. Stems sparsely hispido-pilose (hairs 0.5–2 mm) and minutely stipitate-glandular
→ 10
9. Stems hirsutulous or hirsute, sometimes minutely gland-dotted (use lens)
→ 11
10. Plants 5–20 cm; stems usually erect, sometimes ascending; leaf margins usually dentate, sometimes entire; involucres 5–7(–9) mm diam.; ray corollas 3.5–5.5 mm;disc corollas 1.7–2.4 mm
E. velutipes
10. Plants 15–40 cm; stems procumbent or ascending-decumbent; leaf margins usually entire, rarely 1-toothed; involucres 4–6 mm diam.; ray corollas 3–3.7 mm; disc corollas 1.5–1.8 mm
E. piscaticus
11. Stems densely hirsutulous (hairs spreading-deflexed, relatively even); heads 1(–3)
E. tracyi
11. Stems hirsutulous, hirsute, puberuloso-hirsutulous, or spreading-hairy (hairs not all spreading-deflexed and of relatively even lengths); heads usually (1–)5–100
→ 12
12. Stems hirsutulous (hairs upcurved), eglandular; pappi: outer cartilaginous crowns, inner of bristles; some ray florets positioned among inner phyllaries
E. bellidiastrum
12. Stems hirsute to puberuloso-hirsutulous (hairs spreading, spreading-descending or -ascending, sometimes crinkly), usually minutely glandular (use lens); pappi of outer setae or scales and inner bristles; all ray florets interior to inner phyllaries
→ 13
13. Stems puberuloso-hirsutulous (hairs evenly distributed, bases not thickened); buds nodding; ray laminae remaining relatively straight; cypsela nerves whitish; pappi of outer scales or setae plus 6–9(–12) inner bristles
E. divergens
13. Stems hirsute or hirsuto-hirtellous to hispid (hairs only along ribs, bases thickened); buds erect; ray florets reflexing or downward curving-reflexing; cypsela nerves orange; pappi sometimes of outer scales or setae plus 9–16 inner bristles or only of bristles
→ 14
14. Leaves 25–50 × 2–5 mm; involucres 5–8 mm diam.; ray florets 125–180, corollas 6–7 mm, laminae reflexing; cypselae 0.7–1 mm; pappi of outer setae or lanceolate scales plus (10–)12–17 inner bristles
E. arisolius
14. Leaves 10–30 × 0.5–1.5 mm; involucres 4–6 mm diam.; ray florets (60–)85–130(–195), corollas 3.8–5 mm, laminae downward curving-reflexing; cypselae 0.6–0.7 mm; pappi of outer scales or setae plus 9–14 inner bristles or only of bristles
E. sceptrifer

Group 7

1. Stems branched (leafy to near heads)
→ 2
1. Stems simple (± scapiform, leafy mostly on proximal 1/2, or leaves mostly or distally bractlike).
→ 4
2. Leaves sparsely strigose, eglandular; ray laminae reflexing
E. pringlei
2. Leaves hirsute or hispido-hirsute, minutely glandular; ray laminae not coiling or reflexing
→ 3
3. Leaves spatulate, 15–30 × 1.5–4 mm (reduced to bracts on peduncles), mostly 3-lobed (lobes linear to oblong-oblanceolate, about as wide as central portion of blades); phyllaries glabrous or sometimes sparsely hispid, densely minutely glandular
E. allocotus
3. Leaves cuneate to obovate, 150–400 × 10–20 mm (nearly even-sized to near heads), 3-lobed or -dentate (lobes much narrower than central portion of blades); phyllar-ies usually densely villoso-hirsute, minutely glandular
E. basalticus
4. Caudices simple or branches usually relatively short and thick; leaves (1–)2–3 times ternately lobed or dissected
E. compositus
4. Caudex branches rhizomelike, relatively slender; leaves entire or 1-ternately lobed or toothed (1–2 in E. flabellifolius)
→ 5
5. Oldest and largest leaves mostly entire, younger commonly toothed or lobed; Canada, Alaska
→ 6
5. Oldest and largest leaves dentate or lobed, younger entire; United States and (E. trifidus) s Canada
→ 9
6. Ray laminae strap-shaped (relatively broad), spreading; pappi whitish to tawny, bristles often twisted
E. lanatus
6. Ray laminae filiform (often involute), usually erect; pappi usually purplish (tawny-white to yellowish in E. pallens), bristles not twisted
→ 7
7. Pappi tawny-white to yellowish; leaves entire or shallowly 3-lobed apically
E. pallens
7. Pappi usually purplish; leaves entire or toothed or lobed on margins or apically
→ 8
8. Plants 1–5 cm; leaves spatulate to oblanceolate-spatulate, 2–4(–5) mm wide, margins entire or shallowly (2–)3-lobed or -toothed apically, faces moderately villous and minutely glandular; phyllaries densely lanate-villous
E. denalii
8. Plants (2–)3–9(–14) cm; leaves linear to narrowly oblanceolate, 1–2.5(–3) mm wide, margins entire or (mostly on early leaves) with 1 or 2 shallow, lateral lobes or teeth, faces sometimes sparsely hirsuto-villous, minutelyglandular; phyllaries sparsely pilose or glabrous
E. purpuratus
9. Stems, leaves, and involucres glabrous, glandular; leaf lobes commonly secondarily dentate or lobed
E. flabellifolius
9. Stems, leaves, and phyllaries hirsute to villoso-hirsute or villous, glandular; leaf lobes not secondarily dentate or lobed
→ 10
10. Leaf lobes acute; involucres 8–12 mm; ray corollas 10–15 mm
E. trifidus
10. Leaf lobes rounded to obtuse; involucres 5–7 mm; ray corollas 4–10 mm
→ 11
11. Plants forming dense, compact cushions; leaves 3–16 × 3–6 mm; phyllaries hirsuto-villous to villous (hairs with colored cross walls); ray corollas 6–10 mm
E. salishii
11. Plants cespitose, relatively loose; leaves (5–)10–25(–30) × 4–10 mm; phyllaries hirsute to villoso-hirsute (hairs without colored cross walls); ray corollas 4–7 mm
E. vagus

Group 8

1. Phyllaries usually sparsely hirsute to villoso-hirsute, eglandular; peduncles straight; leaves mostly 2–6 mm wide
E. elatus
1. Phyllaries hairy or glabrous, minutely glandular; peduncles curved; leaves 2–16 mm wide
→ 2
2. Plants 20–60(–80) cm; sometimes taprooted; heads 1 or 5–35; phyllaries glabrous or sparsely hirsute and glandular; outer pistillate florets 150–250; leaves 3–16 mm wide;pappus bristles (18–)25–35
E. acris
2. Plants 5–25(–35) cm; usually fibrous-rooted or weakly short-rhizomatous, sometimes taprooted; heads 1–6(–8); phyllaries sparsely hirsuto-villous or glabrous and glandular; outer pistillate florets 40–70; leaves 2–6(–10) mm wide; pappus bristles (12–)14–21
E. nivalis

Group 9

1. Plants fibrous-rooted (caudices simple or branched, not taprooted); basal and proximal cauline leaves spatulate to oblanceolate-spatulate
E. aureus
1. Plants taprooted; basal and proximal cauline leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate
→ 2
2. Stems strigose; leaf bases widened, white-indurate, and sheathing
E. linearis
2. Stems strigose or hispidulous to hirsute; leaf bases relatively thin, not sheathing
→ 3
3. Leaves mostly basal, in tufts; stems evenly hispidulous to hirsute
E. chrysopsidis
3. Leaves mostly cauline (proximal internodes elongate); stems usually strigose (at least on distal 1/2)
E. piperianus

Group 10

1. Leaves all or mostly cauline (basal relatively small or withering by flowering)
→ 2
1. Leaves basal or basal and cauline
→ 4
2. Stems usually prostrate to decumbent-trailing, sometimes ascending-erect (taproots commonly not evident or not collected); cypselae 2-nerved, sparsely strigose; pappus bristles18–26
E. elmeri
2. Stems erect; cypselae 5–6-nerved, glabrous; pappus bristles 25–35
→ 3
3. Leaves 50–100 mm; phyllaries in 4–5 series; Arizona, New Mexico
E. rhizomatus
3. Leaves 10–30 mm; phyllaries in 2–3 series; ne United States and Canada
E. hyssopifolius
4. Plants mat-forming; leaves basal; leaves all basal; rays 10–20
E. scopulinus
4. Plants producing rhizomes or rhizome-like caudex branches, not mat-forming; leaves basal and cauline (basal leaves 10–120); rays 15–100
→ 5
5. Bases of stems and basal leaves greenish; cauline leaf bases subclasping (rarely in E. sanctarum)
→ 6
5. Bases of stems and basal leaves purplish; cauline leaf bases not subclasping
→ 7
6. Stems ascending, sparsely pilose (hairs spreading-ascending), strigose proximally, eglandular; proximal leaves spatulate; rays 32–45, white; Arizona
E. kuschei
6. Stems erect, sparsely hirsuto-villous (hairs usually retrorse), eglandular; proximal leaves oblanceolate to oblanceolate-spatulate; rays 45–90, blue to purple; California
E. sanctarum
7. Plants taprooted (taproots commonly not evident or not collected); involucres 4–6 × 7–13 mm; phyllaries erect, narrowly elliptic, apices appressed, abaxial faces glabrous or sparsely strigose; rays 15–60, laminae reflexing
E. leiomerus
7. Plants fibrous-rooted; involucres 5–7.5 × 9–19 mm; phyllaries often loose, linear-lanceolate, apices spreading, abaxial faces sparsely to moderately villous to hirsuto-villous; rays 30–100, laminae not reflexing or coiling, sometimes tardily coiling
→ 8
8. Basal and proximal cauline leaves 20–120 × 2–11 mm; phyllaries sparsely to moderately villous to hirsuto-villous, densely minutely glandular
E. ursinus
8. Basal and proximal cauline leaves 20–40(–90) × 1–3(–5) mm; phyllaries strigoso-hirsute to strigose (hairs appressed or slightly loose), sometimesminutely glandular
E. gracilis

Group 11

1. Ray laminae erect, ± filiform, 3–6(–8) mm (0.3–1 mm wide)
→ 2
1. Ray laminae spreading, strap-shaped, 5–13 mm (mostly 1–2 mm wide)
→ 4
2. Hairs of phyllaries and distal stems with dark reddish to blackish-purple cross walls; phyllaries usually dark purple; involucres 10–15(–20) mm diam
E. humilis
2. Hairs of phyllaries with clear or sometimes bright reddish cross walls; phyllaries green or reddish purple; involucres 12–30 mm diam
→ 3
3. Involucres 8–10(–11) mm; phyllaries reddish purple, densely lanate (hairs tangled,soft); pappi accrescent (surpassing disc corollas and involucres in fruit)
E. uniflorus
3. Involucres 6–8 mm; phyllaries usually green, villous (usually mostly on proximal 1/2,hairs rigid, usually oriented in single direction); pappi not accrescent
E. alpiniformis
4. Leaves and phyllaries densely and closely lanate
E. muirii
4. Leaves and phyllaries hirsute to villous, villoso-sericeous, woolly-villous, or strigillose
→ 5
5. Hairs on phyllaries with black or dark purple cross walls
→ 6
5. Hairs on phyllaries with clear or reddish to reddish purple cross walls
→ 7
6. Leaves hirsute (apices acute to obtuse); disc corollas 3.5–5 mm
E. hyperboreus
6. Leaves glabrous or sparsely hirsute (apices rounded to retuse); disc corollas2.4–3.2 mm
E. melanocephalus
7. Proximal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, (10–)40–160 mm; heads 1–2(–4) from branches at midstems
E. yukonensis
7. Proximal leaves oblong-oblanceolate to oblanceolate, obovate, or spatulate, 10–70(–120) mm; heads 1.
→ 8
8. Basal leaves oblong-oblanceolate to narrowly obovate (apices acute), bases of cauline often subclasping; phyllaries hirsute to hirsuto-villous or villous (hairs whitish, without colored cross walls); ray florets 65–110, corollas 13–17 mm; outer pappi of relatively long setae or scales
E. porsildii
8. Basal leaves oblanceolate to obovate or spatulate (apices rounded), bases of cauline never subclasping; phyllaries ± villous (hairs glassy, often with reddish cross walls); ray florets 20–130, corollas 5–13(–15) mm; outer pappi of relatively short setae
→ 9
9. Ray florets 25–40, corollas white; basal leaves spatulate (petioles equaling or longerthan blades); phyllaries hirsute to hirsuto-villous
E. flettii
9. Ray florets 25–130, corollas usually blue to pink, rarely white; basal leaves oblanceolate to obovate or spatulate (if spatulate, petioles shorter than or equaling blades); phyllaries hirsute to hirsuto-villous or moderately to densely white-woolly-villous
→ 10
10. Phyllaries hirsute to hirsuto-villous, hairs without colored cross walls
E. algidus
10. Phyllaries moderately to densely woolly-villous, hairs sometimes with reddish cross walls
E. grandiflorus

Group 12

1. Phyllaries villoso-lanate or hirsuto-villous (at least basal part of hairs with black or reddish to purple cross walls), minutely glandular
→ 2
1. Phyllaries glandular and/or variously hairy (hair cross walls not distinctly colored)
→ 3
2. Phyllaries hirsuto-villous (hair cross walls black)
E. coulteri
2. Phyllaries densely villoso-lanate (hair cross walls reddish to purple)
E. elatior
3. Stems procumbent to decumbent-ascending (plants forming dense colonies); leaves fleshy
E. glaucus
3. Stems erect to ascending (not forming dense colonies); leaves not fleshy
→ 4
4. Primary rhizomes slender, producing scale-leaved runners or stoloniform rhizomes
→ 5
4. Primary rhizomes relatively thick, sometimes woody, fibrous-rooted
→ 8
5. Stems usually abruptly dilated immediately proximal to heads; e United States
E. pulchellus
5. Stems not abruptly dilated; w United States
→ 6
6. Plants 5–15 cm; stems sparsely pilose (hairs spreading-ascending), strigose proximally, eglandular; involucres 4–5 × 8–10 mm; ray florets 32–45, corollas 8–11 mm; pappus bristles 15–19
E. kuschei
6. Plants 15–60 cm; stems hirsute to hirtellous, glandular to nearly eglandular; involucres 6–9 × 9–19 mm; ray florets 40–99, corollas 11–20 mm; pappus bristles 20–32
→ 7
7. Stems usually glabrous, sometimes sparsely hirsuto-pilose proximal to heads, minutely glandular to nearly eglandular; basal leaves usually persistent, spatulate; phyllaries usually glabrous, sometimes sparselyvillous at bases, minutely glandular
E. eximius
7. Stems hirsute to hirtellous (hairs retrorsely spreading), eglandular or sparsely glandular; basal leaves usually withering by flowering, elliptic-ovate to spatulate-obovate; phyllaries piloso-hirsute, sometimes minutely glandular
E. rybius
8. Phyllaries relatively densely hairy, eglandular or glands essentially obscured by hairs
→ 9
8. Phyllaries sometimes sparsely to moderately hirsute to villous (hairs not obscuring glands), glandular
→ 13
9. Plants cespitose (stems from fibrous-rooted rhizomes or caudices with woody, rhizomelike branches); involucres 5–6 × 8–13 mm; phyllaries usually purplish
E. hessii
9. Plants not cespitose (caudices simple or branched); involucres 5–9 × 9–22 mm; phyllaries greenish
→ 10
10. Plants with relatively short and thickened caudices or rhizomes, usually appearing fibrous-rooted; phyllaries hirsute to strigose, eglandular
E. glabellus
10. Plants evidently rhizomatous; phyllaries hirsute to villous, glandular or eglandular
→ 11
11. Phyllaries villoso-hirsute, eglandular; alpine habitats, w Canada,Alaska, Oregon, Washington
E. peregrinus
11. Phyllaries hirsute to piloso-hirsute, densely minutely glandular; lower elevation habitats, Rocky Mountains, Alberta, United States
→ 12
12. Stems strigose to strigoso-hirsute or hirsute, eglandular; basal leaves often 3-nerved, margins shallowly serrate, faces loosely strigose; rays 25–80, white; disc corollas 2.9–4 mm
E. arizonicus
12. Stems densely hirsute to hirsutulous or glabrous, minutely glandular to stipitate-glandular; basal leaves margins entire, faces glabrous or sparsely hirsute; rays 75–150, mostly blue to purple; disc corollas 3.5–4.5 mm
E. formosissimus
13. Leaves often prominently 3-nerved, margins coarsely dentate to shallowly serrate or entire
→ 14
13. Leaves margins usually entire, sometimes (E. howellii) denticulate or shallowly serrate
→ 15
14. Leaf margins entire or shallowly serrate, faces loosely strigose; phyllaries moderately piloso-hirsute; ray corollas 8–10 mm; Arizona, New Mexico
E. arizonicus
14. Leaf margins usually coarsely dentate (teeth 1–5 pairs), sometimes entire, faces strigose to hirsute; phyllaries glabrous or moderately villous to white-hirsuto-villous (sometimes only at peduncle-involucre region); ray corollas 10–15 mm; California, Oregon, Washington
E. aliceae
15. Stems 1-nerved, strigillose (hairs crinkly) or glabrous distally, eglandular or nearly so; phyllaries glabrous or sparsely hairy, densely glandular
→ 16
15. Stems hirsute distally or throughout, glandular or eglandular; phyllaries sometimes hirsute to villous, glandular
→ 19
16. Stems strigillose (hairs crinkly) at least distally; ray laminae 1.5–3 mm wide
→ 17
16. Stems glabrous distally; ray laminae ca. 1 mm or 1.5–3 mm wide
→ 18
17. Stems strigillose, more densely so distally; basal and proximal cauline leaves linear-oblanceolate to broadly lanceolate or spatulate; ray corollas usually blue to rose purple or pink, sometimes white, 8–16(–25) mm; at 1300–3800 m
E. glacialis
17. Stems proximally glabrous, distally strigillose; basal and proximal cauline leaves spatulate; ray corollas white, 13–25 mm; at (60–)500–1200(–1500) m
E. howellii
18. Plants 30–80(–100) cm; rays 75–150, corollas 8–16 × ca. 1 mm
E. speciosus
18. Plants (10–)15–30 cm; rays 20–45, corollas 7–10 × ca. 1.5–3 mm
E. cervinus
19. Ray laminae 1.5–3 mm wide; cypselae 2.5–2.8 mm, (4–)5(–7)-nerved
→ 20
19. Ray laminae ca. 1 mm wide; cypselae (1.3–)1.5–2 mm, 2(–4)-nerved
→ 21
20. Phyllary margins usually ciliate, faces sparsely to moderately villoso-hirsute, usually sparsely gland-dotted apically, rarely throughout
E. peregrinus
20. Phyllaries usually glabrous (rarely outer faces and margins sparsely villous), densely and evenly stipitate-glandular
E. glacialis
21. Stems ascending; cauline leaves gradually reduced distally
E. formosissimus
21. Stems usually erect; cauline leaves usually nearly even-sized, sometimes mid largest
→ 22
22. Cauline leaves ending 1.5–9 cm proximal to heads (peduncles distinct);rays white
E. arizonicus
22. Cauline leaves continuing to immediately proximal to heads (peduncles very short); rays mostly blue to purplish.
→ 23
23. Stems and leaves prominently and densely stipitate-glandular (glands 0.2–0.5 mm), stems sometimes sparsely pilose (hairs 1–2 mm); pappi: outer of scales, inner of 14–22 bristles
E. vreelandii
23. Stems and distal leaves eglandular to minutely glandular or inconspicuously stipitate-glandular (if stipitate, glands 0.1–0.4 mm), stems, leaves, and phyllaries glabrous or hirsute to hirsuto-pilose (hairs 0.5–2 mm); pappi: outer of setae, inner of 20–30 bristles
→ 24
24. Stems moderately to densely hirsute, eglandular; leaves evenly hirsute to strigoso-hirsute, usually eglandular
E. subtrinervis
24. Stems glabrous or hirsuto-pilose, sometimes minutely glandular; leaves glabrous or sparsely hirsuto-pilose, eglandular or minutely glandular
→ 25
25. Stems sparsely hirsuto-pilose (hairs 1–2 mm), sometimes minutely glandular
E. uintahensis
25. Stems glabrous or sparsely hirsuto-pilose (hairs 0.5–1 mm), often minutely glandular distally
E. speciosus

Group 13

1. Stems hispidulous (usually subintricately branched, brittle); involucres 4–5 mm; phyllaries glabrous or outer sparsely hispid, minutely glandular; disc corollas 3.5–4 mm; cypselae 1.5–1.9 mm; pappus bristles 15–18(–23)
E. bigelovii
1. Stems puberulo-hirsutulous to sparsely strigose, glabrate, or glabrous (not subintricately branched, not brittle); involucres 2–4.5 mm; phyllaries hispid, hirtellous, hirsute, hirsuto-villous, or sparsely strigose, usually also minutely glandular, sometimes glabrous or glabrate (in E. karvinskianus); disc corollas 1.6–3.1 mm; cypselae 0.7–1.4 mm; pappus bristles 5–27
→ 2
2. Leaf blades elliptic to obovate, usually relatively even-sized (with leaf tufts in axils); pappus bristles 15–27
E. karvinskianus
2. Leaf blades oblanceolate or obovate to spatulate, reduced distally (without axillary tufts); pappus bristles 5–17
→ 3
3. Stems decumbent-ascending to prostrate, erect branches sometimes produced from prostrate ones
E. lemmonii
3. Stems erect to ascending
→ 4
4. Stems puberulo-hirsutulous
E. divergens
4. Stems closely to loosely strigose or villous, rarely with ascending-spreading hairs as well
→ 5
5. Stems woody proximally; pappus bristles (5–)12–17
E. modestus
5. Stems herbaceous; pappus bristles 5–12.
→ 6
6. Caudices simple; basal and proximal cauline leaves 10–70 × 2–8(–13) mm, margins usually entire, sometimes dentate or pinnately divided; involucres 2–3.5 mm; cypselae 0.8–1.2 mm; pappus bristles 6–12; Arizona, Utah
E. religiosus
6. Caudices simple or branched; basal and proximal cauline leaves 10–30 × 2–6 mm, margins entire; involucres 3.5–4 mm; cypselae 0.7–0.9 mm; pappus bristles 5–8; California, Nevada
E. multiceps

Group 14

1. Stems densely white-strigose (at least proximally), eglandular; leaves linear
E. filifolius
1. Stems glabrous or villous, puberulous, hispid, or hirsute, or, if sparsely strigose, then not whitish because of vestiture, glandular or eglandular; leaves mostly narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, oblong, or elliptic, if linear, then stems glabrous or sparsely strigose
→ 2
2. Stems sparsely villous, minutely stipitate-glandular
E. aequifolius
2. Stems puberulous, villous, hispid, hirsute, hirsutulous, sparsely strigose, or glabrous, eglandular
→ 3
3. Stems puberulous to villous, hispid, or hirsute to hirsutulous (hairs spreading to spreading-deflexed)
→ 4
3. Stems glabrous or sparsely strigose (hairs ascending-appressed)
→ 8
4. Phyllaries densely canescent-hirsutulous, minutely glandular; stems puberulous to villosulous (hairs crisped); cypselae glabrous
E. blochmaniae
4. Phyllaries either densely minutely glandular (otherwise glabrous or sparsely hairy) or hispido-hirsute and minutely glandular; stems densely hirsutulous to hirsute, hispidulous, hispido-hirsute, or piloso-hirsute (hairs straight, spreading to deflexed); cypselae strigose
→ 5
5. Phyllaries strigoso- to hispido-hirsute, minutely glandular
E. breweri
5. Phyllaries glabrous or sparsely hairy, densely glandular
→ 6
6. Plants 7–15 cm; stems prostrate to procumbent or decumbent
E. breweri
6. Plants 6–15(–20) or 20–60 cm; stems usually ascending
→ 7
7. Plants 6–15(–20) cm; caudex branches with lignescent offsets from woody roots; stem hairs spreading, 0.2–1 mm; inner phyllaries lacking green apical areas (margins white, relatively broad, thickened)
E. klamathensis
7. Plants 12–60 cm; caudex branches rhizomelike, fibrous-rooted; stem hairs slightly to strongly deflexed, 0.1–0.4 mm; inner phyllaries with green apical areas
E. breweri
8. Stems with axillary tufts of smaller leaves at most nodes; margins of inner phyllariesbroadly scarious
E. mariposanus
8. Stems without axillary leaf tufts; margins of inner phyllaries narrowly scarious
→ 9
9. Stems prostrate to decumbent-trailing; rhizomes relatively slender, fibrous-rooted,or caudex branches rhizomelike; leaves 5–20 mm
E. elmeri
9. Stems erect or ascending; taproots woody; leaves 10–50(–100) mm
→ 10
10. Mid and distal cauline leaves shorter than internodes, eciliate
E. oxyphyllus
10. Mid and distal cauline leaves longer than internodes, ciliate (cilia ascending-apressed)
→ 11
11. Cilia on leaf margins thick-based; phyllaries glabrous or moderately to densely strigoso-hirsute, sometimes densely and prominently glandular; rays 15–60
E. foliosus
11. Cilia on leaf margins thin-based; phyllaries glabrate (barely perceptible), densely minutely glandular; rays 9–13
E. serpentinus

Group 15

1. Stems and leaves strigose
→ 2
1. Stems and leaves usually hispid to hirsute or hirtellous, sometimes glabrous
→ 3
2. Involucres 3.5–6 mm; ray corollas 5–10 mm, laminae 0.8–1.1 mm wide, apparently both coiling at tips and reflexing at tube-lamina junction; disc corollas indurate and inflated beyond tubes, puberulent; cypselae 1.4–1.8 mm, oblong; outer pappi of narrowscales or setae
E. engelmannii
2. Involucres 5–8 mm; ray corollas 8–14 mm, laminae 1.2–1.8 mm wide, coiling, not reflexing; disc corollas not indurate or inflated, glabrate; cypselae 2.1–2.5 mm, obovoid;outer pappi of setae
E. davisii
3. Disc corolla throats not tubular, indurate and inflated; midnerve regions of phyllaries orange to yellowish; outer pappi of setae or scales; heads 1–5(–50)
→ 4
3. Disc corolla throats tubular, not indurate and inflated; midnerve regions of phyllaries greenish; outer pappi of inconspicuous, fine setae; heads 1.
→ 5
4. Disc corollas glabrous or slightly puberulent (hairs glandular-viscid, blunt); pappi: outer of setae or subulate scales 0.1–0.3 mm, inner of 12–27 bristles
E. pumilus
4. Disc corollas hirsuto-strigose (hairs sharply pointed); pappi: outer of scales 0.2–0.5 mm, inner of (7–)10–14(–15) bristles
E. concinnus
5. Stems and leaves usually glabrous or sparsely hirsute to villous; rays 30–90; Rocky Mountains
E. vetensis
5. Stems and leaves usually strigose to hirsutulous or hispid; rays 20–40(–55); Great Basin and Sierra Nevada
→ 6
6. Stems moderately hirsute to hispidulous (hairs spreading-deflexed), minutely glandular (at least distally); basal leaves 1- or 3-nerved, 20–50(–80) mm; phyllaries greenish; cypselae 1.8–2.5 mm
E. clokeyi
6. Stems hirtellous to sparsely hirsute (hairs straight-spreading, densely minutely glandular); basal leaves 20–35(–45) mm; phyllaries commonly purplish to purplish black, sometimes only at tips; cypselae 2.3–2.8 mm
E. pygmaeus

Group 16

1. Rays yellow (sometimes fading)
→ 2
1. Rays pink to bluish purple or white
→ 3
2. Leaves mostly basal (in tufts); stems evenly hispidulous to hirsute
E. chrysopsidis
2. Leaves mostly cauline (proximal internodes elongate); stems strigose at least on distal 1/2.
E. piperianus
3. Stems with nonglandular hairs of unequal or equal lengths; stems and leaves moderately to densely minutely glandular; leaves narrowly oblanceolate to spatulate, (20–) 30–80 × 2–6(–12) mm; rays usually pink to blue or purplish, sometimes white
→ 4
3. Stems with nonglandular hairs of unequal lengths; stems and leaves usually eglandular, sometimes sparsely minutely glandular; leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate, 20–40 × 1–2 mm; rays white or blue
→ 5
4. Stems hirsute (hairs unequal); cypselae 2.5–3 mm, densely strigoso-sericeous (facesobscured)
E. poliospermus
4. Stems sparsely hirsuto-villous (hairs equal); leaves mostly basal, oblanceolate-spatulate to oblanceolate; cypselae 3.5–4.5 mm, sparsely strigose to glabrate (faces not obscured)
E. latus
5. Stems hispido-hirsutulous to hirsute (hairs spreading, stiff, relatively thick-based); rays usually blue to purplish; disc corollas 3.9–5.5 mm; cypselae 2.2–2.8 mm
E. nanus
5. Stems densely pilose to hirsuto-villous or loosely strigose; rays usually white; disc corollas 2.8–4 mm; cypselae 1.8–2.2 mm or 2.1–2.5 mm
→ 6
6. Stems densely pilose (hairs usually mixed in orientation); cypselae 1.8–2.2 mm
E. disparipilus
6. Stems hirsuto-villous to loosely strigose (hairs similar in orientation); cypselae 2.1–2.5 mm
E. davisii

Group 17

1. Basal leaves usually coarsely dentate or incised; pappus bristles twisted or curled (at least distal 1/2); stout taproots evident, caudices usually simple
E. oreganus
1. Basal leaves entire or serrate to dentate; pappus bristles not twisted or curled; caudices usually with stout, woody, vertical or horizontal branches 2–10 cm
→ 2
2. Leaves and stems glabrous or sparsely villous, sparsely minutely glandular; rays white
E. cascadensis
2. Leaves and stems sparsely to moderately hispidulous to hirsute or hirsuto-villous, minutely glandular to stipitate-glandular; rays usually blue to purplish, sometimes white or pink
E. leibergii

Group 18

1. Stems and leaves glabrous, minutely glandular; basal leaves usually 3-nerved (sometimes with conspicuously raised primary and secondary venation), cauline little reduced
E. nauseosus
1. Stems and leaves glabrous or sparsely and inconspicuously strigose (sparsely villosulous distally in E. evermannii), eglandular; basal leaves 1-nerved (never with raised venation), cauline reduced distally or essentially absent.
→ 2
2. Caudices with diffuse system of relatively long, slender, rhizomelike branches or basal offsets; taproots usually not evident; ray laminae reflexing
→ 3
2. Caudices multicipital or with relatively long, thick to relatively slender, lignescent branches; taproots usually evident; ray laminae not reflexing (except in E. kachinensis)
→ 4
3. Leaves basal and reduced cauline, 15–70 × 2–11(–15) mm; phyllaries in 2–3 series
E. leiomerus
3. Leaves all basal, 5–12 × 1–3.5 mm; phyllaries in 3–4(–5) series
E. scopulinus
4. Phyllaries glabrous; caudex branches relatively short and thick; rays purplish to lavender; New Mexico
E. subglaber
4. Phyllaries minutely glandular, or sparsely to moderately hirsuto-villous to strigose, or both hairy and glandular; caudex branches short and thick to long and slender; rays mostly white to pink; n to w of New Mexico
→ 5
5. Phyllaries eglandular or sparsely glandular; ray laminae reflexing; cypselae 1.2–1.6 mm; Arizona
→ 6
5. Phyllaries minutely glandular; ray laminae reflexing or not; cypselae 1.5–3.5 mm; n to ne of Arizona
→ 9
6. Leaves usually apically 3-lobed to pinnatifid with 2–3(–5) pairs of lobes; ray laminae sometimes with abaxial lilac midstripe
E. pringlei
6. Leaves entire or (in E. anchana) with 1(–2) pairs of deep lobes or teeth; ray laminae without midstripe
→ 7
7. Leaves linear (0.5–0.9 mm wide); pappus bristles 16–21
E. heliographis
7. Leaves linear-oblanceolate to spatulate; pappus bristles 9–15 or 19–26
→ 8
8. Plants 7–22 cm; basal leaves spatulate, (30–)40–90 × 4–8 mm, margins entire or with 1(–2) pairs of lobes or teeth (petioles about 2 times blade lengths); phyllary midnerves orange-resinous, slightly swollen; disc corollas with prominent orange-resinous veins; pappus bristles 19–26
E. anchana
8. Plants mostly 3–5 cm; basal leaves linear-oblanceolate to slightly spatulate, 10–30 × 0.5–2(–3) mm, margins entire (petioles, when distinct, about equaling blades); phyllary midnerves greenish yellow, not swollen; disc corollas veins not orange-resinous; pappus bristles 9–13(–15)
E. saxatilis
9. Leaves filiform or linear to linear-oblanceolate; cypselae 1.5–2.2 mm
→ 10
9. Leaves oblanceolate to spatulate; cypselae 1.8–3.5 mm
→ 11
10. Involucres 4–6 × 7–10 mm; rays blue, 4–8 mm
E. arenarioides
10. Involucres 3–3.5 × 5–6 mm; rays white, 8–9 mm
E. salmonensis
11. Leaves not folding along midveins; ray corollas 7–13 mm; pappus bristleswhite-shiny
E. garrettii
11. Leaves commonly folding along midveins; ray corollas 3.5–10 mm; pappus bristles stramineous, dull
→ 12
12. Heads 1–4; rays 10–15, laminae reflexing; pappus bristles 12–14;cypselae 1.8–2 mm
E. kachinensis
12. Heads 1(–2); rays 13–40, laminae not reflexing; pappus bristles 25–35; cypselae 2–3.5 mm
→ 13
13. Leaves basal and reduced cauline; phyllaries glabrous, minutelyglandular; ray corollas 4–6 mm; disc corollas 2.8–4 mm
E. watsonii
13. Leaves nearly all basal; phyllaries sparsely to moderately hirsuto-villous, sometimes minutely glandular; ray corollas 6–10 mm; disccorollas 3.6–4.5 mm
E. evermannii

Group 19

1. Leaves spatulate, bases of blades abruptly contracted to petioles
→ 2
1. Leaf blades linear to lanceolate, oblanceolate, or oblanceolate-spatulate, bases usually attenuate to petioles
→ 5
2. Stems villous to hirsuto-villous
→ 3
2. Stems hirsute to hirtellous
→ 4
3. Phyllaries eglandular or sparsely glandular near apices and along midregion; stems and leaves eglandular; leaf faces strigose to hirsuto-villous, less densely so abaxially;cypselae 1.3–1.8 mm
E. uncialis
3. Phyllaries evenly and densely glandular; stems and leaves glandular; leaf faces equallyhirsuto-canescent; cypselae 1–1.2 mm
E. cavernensis
4. Stems moderately to densely hirtellous (hairs deflexed), eglandular; leaves folding along midnerves; rays deep blue or violet to rose-purple; disc corollas 4.2–6.3 mm
E. asperugineus
4. Stems densely hirsute (hairs spreading), minutely glandular; leaves not folding alongmidnerves; rays white to pink; disc corollas 2.5–3 mm
E. maguirei
5. Leaf faces glabrous or glabrate abaxially, hairy adaxially (both faces hairy in E. parryi)
→ 6
5. Leaf faces hairy
→ 10
6. Phyllaries densely glandular, villous hairs with blackish purple crosswalls; rays purple to lavender; leaf apices acute; pappus bristles 15–24
E. lackschewitzii
6. Phyllaries sparsely and inconspicuously glandular, non-glandular hairs with or without colored crosswalls; rays white to pink or bluish; leaf apices obtuse to rounded or (in E. ochroleucus) acute; pappus bristles (6–)7–15 or 15–25
→ 7
7. Stems hirsute; leaves 10–25 mm, faces hirsute to hirsuto-strigose
E. parryi
7. Stems hirsutulous to villous, lanate-villous, or villosulous; leaves 10–90(–120) mm, abaxial faces essentially glabrous, adaxial strigose or sparsely villous.
→ 8
8. Stems finely hirsutulous to villosulous; leaf apices obtuse to rounded; rays 15–35, bluish to purplish, rarely white; pappus bristles 15–20
E. rydbergii
8. Stems loosely strigose to puberulo-strigose or villous; leaf apices acute or obtuse to rounded; rays (12–)20–62(–85), white to pinkish, bluish, or lavender; pappus bristles (6–)7–15
→ 9
9. Stems (1–)2–6(–12) cm, strigose to short-villous, usually arising from short, thickened caudex branches; leaves (5–)10–50(–60) mm, apices obtuse to rounded, adaxial faces sparsely loosely strigose, abaxial glabrate or glabrous, shiny; involucres (3–)4–6(–8) mm; phyllary hairs usually with colored crosswalls; rays (12–)20–44(–85); pappus bristles (6–)7–11
E. radicatus
9. Stems (2–)8–18(–30) cm, usually loosely strigose, arising from a nearly common point near apices of thick taproots, caudices usually simple; leaves (20–)40–90(–120) mm, apices acute, faces usually strigose at least on proximal 1/3 – 3/4 of blade, adaxial glabrous distally; involucres 5.5–7 mm; phyllary hairs usually without colored crosswalls; rays 30–62; pappus bristles 12–15
E. ochroleucus
10. Leaf apices acute; basal leaves (30–)50–160 mm; stems usually purplish proximally; heads 1–10(–18)
→ 11
10. Leaf apices usually rounded to obtuse; basal leaves mostly (15–)20–90 mm; stems greenish proximally (except E. jonesii); heads 1–5
→ 13
11. Cauline leaves usually smaller than basal; heads 1–4(–7)
E. eatonii
11. Cauline leaves gradually or little reduced from basal, usually continuing relatively even-sized nearly to heads; heads 1–10(–18)
→ 12
12. Phyllaries flat, densely hirsute to hirsuto-villous, sometimes sparsely minutely glandular; rays 35–65, corollas 7–13 mm, laminae coiling at apices; disc corollas 4–5.3 mm; pappus bristles 20–30
E. corymbosus
12. Phyllaries commonly strongly keeled to nearly folded, moderately hirsuto-villous or villous, densely minutely glandular; rays 12–36, corollas 4.5–8 mm, laminae slightly coiling or not; disc corollas 2.5–3.5 mm; pappus bristles 12–24
E. lassenianus
13. Leaves 3-nerved
→ 14
13. Leaves 1-nerved
→ 15
14. Stems greenish proximally; phyllaries densely hirsuto-canescent to hirtellous; raylaminae coiling
E. caespitosus
14. Stems purplish proximally; phyllaries sparsely to moderately hirsute; ray laminae not coiling or reflexing
E. jonesii
15. Stems hirsute (hairs spreading, not deflexed), densely minutely glandular
E. maguirei
15. Stems hirsute or hirsutulous to hirtellous (hairs deflexed or not), eglandular or glandular only distally
→ 16
16. Stem hairs spreading to ascending; leaves 10–25(–50) × 0.8–2 mm
E. parryi
16. Stem hairs deflexed; leaves 15–70 × 2–6(–8)
→ 17
17. Phyllaries hirsute to hirsuto-villous, eglandular; involucres 5–7 mm; raycorollas 6–10 mm, blue; pappus bristles 20–25
E. goodrichii
17. Phyllaries strigose to strigulose or finely hirsuto-villous, minutely glandular; involucres 3.7–5.2 mm; ray corollas 5–6 mm, blue to pink or white;pappus bristles 12–20
E. abajoensis

Group 20

1. Leaves mostly linear
→ 2
1. Leaves mostly oblanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate or narrowly obovate
→ 5
2. Basal leaves persistent (old leaf bases persistent, chaffy, fibrous); cauline leaves graduallyor abruptly reduced from basals; heads 1(–3); involucres 5–7 × 10–13 mm
E. canaani
2. Basal leaves present at, or withering by flowering (old leaf bases not persistent); cauline leaves gradually or little reduced from basals; heads (1–)2–7(–18); involucres 4.2–8.5 × 6–18 mm
→ 3
3. Plants 9–20(–35) cm; cauline leaves relatively unreduced distally; involucres 4.2–5.6 × 6–10(–12) mm
E. lassenianus
3. Plants (5–)15–60 cm; cauline leaves reduced distally; involucres (4.5–)5–8.5 × 9–12 or 12–18 mm
→ 4
4. Plants colonial (caudex branches rhizomelike); involucres (4.5–)5–6 × 9–12 mm; phyllaries linear-lanceolate, apices linear-acuminate; disc corollas 3–3.5 mm; cypselae 1.2–1.6 mm
E. decumbens
4. Plants not colonial (caudex branches not rhizomelike); involucres 6–8.5 × (12–) 14–20 mm; phyllaries narrowly oblanceolate to lanceolate, apices acute or abruptly acuminate; disc corollas 3.5–4.5 mm; cypselae (1.8–)2–3.2 mm
E. robustior
5. Basal cells of stem hairs erect, hairs attenuate; leaves 1- or 3-nerved
→ 6
5. Basal cells of stem hairs inclined, often sharply, hairs even-width until apex; leaves mostly 3-nerved (1- or 3-nerved in E. lassenianus)
→ 8
6. Leaves mostly 3-nerved, hirtellous; phyllaries densely hirsuto-canescent to hirtellous
E. caespitosus
6. Leaves mostly strigose to loosely hirsutulous; phyllaries strigose to strigulose or hirsuto-villous
→ 7
7. Stems loosely strigose (hairs ascending); involucres 3.7–5.2 mm; pappus bristles 12–20
E. abajoensis
7. Stems mostly hirsute to hirtellous (hairs deflexed), sometimes proximally strigose (hairs ascending); involucres 5–7 mm; pappus bristles 20–25
E. goodrichii
8. Basal leaves persistent; cauline leaves usually smaller than basal; heads 1–4(–7)
E. eatonii
8. Basal leaves persistent at, or withering by flowering; cauline leaves gradually or little reduced from basal; heads (1–)2–7(–18).
→ 9
9. Plants colonial (caudex branches rhizomelike); involucres 9–12 mm wide; cypselae 1.2–1.6 mm
E. decumbens
9. Plants not colonial (caudices essentially simple); involucres 6–10(–12) mm wide (in E. lassenianus) or (9–)12–20 mm wide; cypselae (1.5–)2–3.2 mm
→ 10
10. Phyllaries densely, minutely glandular; involucres 4–5.5 × 6–10(–12) mm
E. lassenianus
10. Phyllaries essentially eglandular; involucres 6–8.5 × (9–)12–20 mm
→ 11
11. Plants (15–)25–55 cm; taproots relatively thin, 2–3 mm wide; basal leaves linear to very narrowly oblanceolate; cauline leaves ending proximal to heads; involucres 6–8.5 × (12–)14–20 mm; phyllaries narrowly oblanceolate to lanceolate, acute-acuminate
E. robustior
11. Plants 10–22(–27) cm; taproots relatively thick, (3–)5–8 mm wide; basal leaves oblanceolate to spatulate-oblanceolate; cauline leaves usually continuing to near heads; involucres (5–)6–7 × 9–12(–14) mm; phyllaries elliptic-oblanceolate to oblong-oblanceolate, abruptly acuminate
E. maniopotamicus

Group 21

1. Leaves 5–13 mm wide, silvery, densely strigoso-sericeous; involucres 9–14 mm diam
E. tweedyi
1. Leaves 1–7 mm wide, gray-green and strigose or strigillose, or green and sparsely strigose to glabrate or glabrous; involucres 5–12 mm diam
→ 2
2. Leaf apices sharply acute; rays blue to purple
E. tener
2. Leaf apices rounded to obtuse; rays mostly white
→ 3
3. Plants mostly occurring singly (caudices simple or branches relatively slender); rays (8–)11–12
E. wilkenii
3. Plants mat-forming or cespitose (caudices multicipital, branches usually relatively thick); rays 10–30
→ 4
4. Plants mat-forming (from lignescent rhizomes and branched caudices); stems and leaves grayish-strigillose; pappus bristles 20–25; New Mexico
E. acomanus
4. Plants usually cespitose; stems and leaves greenish, strigose; pappus bristles 12–22; Utah, Nevada, California
→ 5
5. Stems closely strigose; leaves narrowly oblanceolate to oblanceolate–spatulate; rays 10–20(–25); disc corollas 2.4–3.4 mm
E. cronquistii
5. Stems loosely strigose to hirsuto-villous; leaves spatulate (laminae elliptic-obovate to suborbiculate); rays 22–30; disc corollas 2–2.4 mm
E. uncialis

Group 22

1. Leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 1.5–5 mm wide; involucres 5.5–9 × 13–18 mm
E. barbellulatus
1. Leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate, basal 0.5–3 mm wide; involucres 3.5–7 × 6–13 mm
→ 2
2. Leaves 0.5–1 mm wide; involucres 3.5–5 × 6–11 mm; rays 15–25, blue to pale lavenderor pinkish; pappus bristles 20–30
E. elegantulus
2. Leaves 0.5–3 mm wide; involucres 4–7 × 8–13 mm; rays 25–38, usually bright yellow,sometimes cream to nearly white; pappus bristles 10–20
E. linearis

Group 23

1. Leaves basal and cauline (basal mostly withering by flowering, not forming conspicuous tufts); heads 1–5(–10)
→ 2
1. Leaves mostly basal or basal and cauline (basal usually persistent); heads 1 or 1–5(–10)
→ 4
2. Stems silvery white; phyllaries glabrous or sparsely strigose proximally, minutely glandular; ray laminae reflexing; outer pappi of setae or conspicuous scales
E. parishii
2. Stems greenish to gray-green; phyllaries usually strigose to hirsuto-strigose, often minutely glandular; ray laminae coiling; outer pappi of inconspicuous setae
→ 3
3. Cauline leaves gradually reduced distally, ending well proximal to heads; heads 1–3(–5); involucres 5–7 × 7–12(–15 mm); rays 28–40, corollas 10–18(–20) mm; disc corollas sparsely strigoso-villous (hairs needlelike); flowering mid Apr–Jun(–Jul)
E. utahensis
3. Cauline leaves reduced to linear bracts relatively even-sized beyond midstem and continuing to immediately proximal to heads; heads (1–)3–10; involucres 3–5 × 5–8 mm; rays 10–14(–20), corollas 4–8 mm; disc corollas viscid-puberulent (hairs multicellular, blunt); flowering Jun–Sep
E. sparsifolius
4. Cauline leaves 0 or restricted to proximal 1/4 (– 1/2) of stems
→ 5
4. Cauline leaves often little reduced on at least proximal 1/2 stems
→ 8
5. Cypselae (8–)10–14-nerved, glabrous; ray laminae reflexing, sometimes tardily, never coiling
E. canus
5. Cypselae 2-nerved, hairy at least on nerves; ray laminae coiling
→ 6
6. Leaves oblanceolate to spatulate, 2–7 mm wide; cypsela faces and margins strigose to strigoso-sericeous, margins densely ciliate
E. untermannii
6. Leaves mostly linear, 0.5–1.5 mm wide; cypsela faces glabrous, margins sparsely to densely velutinous-ciliate
→ 7
7. Phyllaries strigose (hairs thin-based); rays 15–32; ray corolla tubes andbases of laminae glabrous or glabrate; pappus bristles 30–40
E. compactus
7. Phyllaries hispido-hirsutulous (hairs relatively thick-based); rays 30–55; ray corolla tubes and bases of laminae densely strigoso-hirsute; pappus bristles 15–25(–35)
E. consimilis
8. Stems, leaves, and phyllaries gray-green to silvery, densely strigose to hirsute or villoso-hirsute; cypselae (2–)4(–5)- or 6–8-nerved; pappus bristles 25–40 or 32–50
→ 9
8. Stems, leaves, and phyllaries greenish, closely to loosely strigose; cypselae 2(–3)-nerved; pappus bristles 12–27
→ 10
9. Stems and leaves silvery to gray-green; phyllaries silvery-strigose (hairs closelyappressed); cypselae 6–8-nerved; pappus bristles 25–40
E. argentatus
9. Stems and leaves gray-green; phyllaries hirsute to villoso-hirsute; cypselae (2–)4(–5)-nerved; pappus bristles 32–50
E. pulcherrimus
10. Caudices multicipital, rarely branched; stems loosely strigose to puberulo-strigose; pappus bristles 12–15
E. ochroleucus
10. Caudices with relatively short, thick branches; stems closely strigose; pappus bristles 15–27
→ 11
11. Leaves mostly 12–30 mm (persistent portions of basal leaves relatively short and broad); phyllaries relatively thinly herbaceous; cypsela faces glabrous, margins sparsely ciliate; Arizona, New Mexico
E. sivinskii
11. Leaves mostly (20–)30–80 mm (persistent portions of basal leaves relatively long and slender-fibrous); phyllary margins thickened; cypsela faces and margins villoso-hirsute, more densely so on nerves; Colorado, Utah, Wyoming
E. nematophyllus
Source FNA vol. 20, p. 284. FNA vol. 20, p. 256.
Parent taxa Asteraceae > tribe Astereae > Erigeron Asteraceae > tribe Astereae
Sibling taxa
E. abajoensis, E. acomanus, E. acris, E. aequifolius, E. algidus, E. aliceae, E. allocotus, E. alpiniformis, E. anchana, E. annuus, E. aphanactis, E. arenarioides, E. argentatus, E. arisolius, E. arizonicus, E. asperugineus, E. aureus, E. barbellulatus, E. basalticus, E. bellidiastrum, E. bigelovii, E. biolettii, E. blochmaniae, E. bloomeri, E. breweri, E. caespitosus, E. calvus, E. canaani, E. canus, E. cascadensis, E. cavernensis, E. cervinus, E. chrysopsidis, E. clokeyi, E. compactus, E. compositus, E. concinnus, E. consimilis, E. corymbosus, E. coulteri, E. cronquistii, E. davisii, E. decumbens, E. denalii, E. disparipilus, E. divergens, E. eatonii, E. elatior, E. elatus, E. elegantulus, E. elmeri, E. engelmannii, E. evermannii, E. eximius, E. filifolius, E. flabellifolius, E. flagellaris, E. flettii, E. foliosus, E. formosissimus, E. garrettii, E. geiseri, E. glabellus, E. glacialis, E. glaucus, E. goodrichii, E. gracilis, E. grandiflorus, E. greenei, E. heliographis, E. hessii, E. howellii, E. humilis, E. hyperboreus, E. hyssopifolius, E. inornatus, E. jonesii, E. kachinensis, E. karvinskianus, E. klamathensis, E. kuschei, E. lackschewitzii, E. lanatus, E. lassenianus, E. latus, E. leibergii, E. leiomerus, E. lemmonii, E. linearis, E. lobatus, E. lonchophyllus, E. maguirei, E. mancus, E. maniopotamicus, E. mariposanus, E. melanocephalus, E. miser, E. modestus, E. muirii, E. multiceps, E. nanus, E. nauseosus, E. nematophyllus, E. neomexicanus, E. nivalis, E. ochroleucus, E. oreophilus, E. ovinus, E. oxyphyllus, E. pallens, E. parishii, E. parryi, E. peregrinus, E. petrophilus, E. philadelphicus, E. pinnatisectus, E. piperianus, E. piscaticus, E. poliospermus, E. porsildii, E. pringlei, E. procumbens, E. pulchellus, E. pulcherrimus, E. pumilus, E. purpuratus, E. pygmaeus, E. quercifolius, E. radicatus, E. reductus, E. religiosus, E. rhizomatus, E. robustior, E. rybius, E. rydbergii, E. salishii, E. salmonensis, E. sanctarum, E. saxatilis, E. sceptrifer, E. scopulinus, E. serpentinus, E. sionis, E. sivinskii, E. sparsifolius, E. speciosus, E. strigosus, E. subglaber, E. subtrinervis, E. supplex, E. tenellus, E. tener, E. tenuis, E. tracyi, E. trifidus, E. tweedyi, E. uintahensis, E. uncialis, E. uniflorus, E. untermannii, E. ursinus, E. utahensis, E. vagus, E. velutipes, E. vernus, E. versicolor, E. vetensis, E. vicinus, E. vreelandii, E. watsonii, E. wilkenii, E. yukonensis
Subordinate taxa
E. abajoensis, E. acomanus, E. acris, E. aequifolius, E. algidus, E. aliceae, E. allocotus, E. alpiniformis, E. anchana, E. annuus, E. aphanactis, E. arenarioides, E. argentatus, E. arisolius, E. arizonicus, E. asperugineus, E. aureus, E. barbellulatus, E. basalticus, E. bellidiastrum, E. bigelovii, E. biolettii, E. blochmaniae, E. bloomeri, E. breweri, E. caespitosus, E. calvus, E. canaani, E. canus, E. cascadensis, E. cavernensis, E. cervinus, E. chrysopsidis, E. clokeyi, E. compactus, E. compositus, E. concinnus, E. consimilis, E. corymbosus, E. coulteri, E. cronquistii, E. davisii, E. decumbens, E. denalii, E. disparipilus, E. divergens, E. eatonii, E. elatior, E. elatus, E. elegantulus, E. elmeri, E. engelmannii, E. evermannii, E. eximius, E. filifolius, E. flabellifolius, E. flagellaris, E. flettii, E. foliosus, E. formosissimus, E. garrettii, E. geiseri, E. glabellus, E. glacialis, E. glaucus, E. goodrichii, E. gracilis, E. grandiflorus, E. greenei, E. heliographis, E. hessii, E. howellii, E. humilis, E. hyperboreus, E. hyssopifolius, E. inornatus, E. jonesii, E. kachinensis, E. karvinskianus, E. klamathensis, E. kuschei, E. lackschewitzii, E. lanatus, E. lassenianus, E. latus, E. leibergii, E. leiomerus, E. lemmonii, E. linearis, E. lobatus, E. lonchophyllus, E. maguirei, E. mancus, E. maniopotamicus, E. mariposanus, E. melanocephalus, E. miser, E. modestus, E. muirii, E. multiceps, E. nanus, E. nauseosus, E. nematophyllus, E. neomexicanus, E. nivalis, E. ochroleucus, E. oreganus, E. oreophilus, E. ovinus, E. oxyphyllus, E. pallens, E. parishii, E. parryi, E. peregrinus, E. petrophilus, E. philadelphicus, E. pinnatisectus, E. piperianus, E. piscaticus, E. poliospermus, E. porsildii, E. pringlei, E. procumbens, E. pulchellus, E. pulcherrimus, E. pumilus, E. purpuratus, E. pygmaeus, E. quercifolius, E. radicatus, E. reductus, E. religiosus, E. rhizomatus, E. robustior, E. rybius, E. rydbergii, E. salishii, E. salmonensis, E. sanctarum, E. saxatilis, E. sceptrifer, E. scopulinus, E. serpentinus, E. sionis, E. sivinskii, E. sparsifolius, E. speciosus, E. strigosus, E. subglaber, E. subtrinervis, E. supplex, E. tenellus, E. tener, E. tenuis, E. tracyi, E. trifidus, E. tweedyi, E. uintahensis, E. uncialis, E. uniflorus, E. untermannii, E. ursinus, E. utahensis, E. vagus, E. velutipes, E. vernus, E. versicolor, E. vetensis, E. vicinus, E. vreelandii, E. watsonii, E. wilkenii, E. yukonensis
Synonyms Achaetogeron, Trimorpha
Name authority A. Gray: Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 19: 2. (1883) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 863. (1753): Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 371. (1754)
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