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guleaf barnyard-grass, gulf barnyard grass, gulf cockspur grass

American barnyard-grass, awn barnyard grass, rough barnyard grass

Habit Plants annual or short-lived perennials. Plants annual.
Culms

30-150 cm;

nodes glabrous.

80-160 cm, erect or spreading, sometimes rooting at the lowest nodes, often developing short axillary flowering shoots at most upper nodes when mature;

lower nodes glabrous or puberulent;

upper nodes glabrous.

Sheaths

glabrous, often purplish;

ligules absent;

blades 12-60 cm long, 10-25 mm wide, glabrous.

glabrous;

ligules absent;

blades 1-27 cm long, 0.8-30 mm wide.

Panicles

10-30 cm, erect or drooping, nodes sparsely hispid, hairs papillose-based, internodes glabrous;

primary branches to 14 cm, nodes sometimes sparsely hispid, hairs papillose-based, internodes usually glabrous;

secondary branches to 3 cm.

of primary culms 7-35 cm, rachises and branches glabrous or hispid, hairs to 3 mm, papillose-based;

primary branches 2-8 cm, usually spreading and rather distant, often with secondary branches.

Spikelets

2.5-3.4 mm long, 1.2-1.4 mm wide, disarticulating at maturity.

2.5-5 mm, disarticulating at maturity, usually purple or streaked with purple, usually hispid, hairs papillose-based.

Caryopses

1.2-1.5 mm long, 1-1.3 mm wide;

embryos 50-70% as long as the caryopses.

1.2-2.5 mm, broadly obovoid or spheroid, yellowish;

embryos 1.4-2 mm, 80-91% as long as the caryopses.

Upper

glumes subequal to the spikelets;

lower florets sterile;

lower lemmas unawned or awned, awns 3-10(15) mm, curved;

lower paleas absent, vestigial, or well-developed;

upper lemmas narrowly elliptic, not or scarcely exceeding the upper glumes, acute or obtuse, with a well-differentiated, early-withering tip, glabrous or pubescent at the base of the tip, hairs not forming a line across the base;

anthers 0.5-0.7 mm.

glumes about as long as the spikelets;

lower florets sterile;

lower lemmas unawned or awned, awns to 16 mm;

lower paleas well-developed;

upper lemmas broadly obovoid or orbicular, narrowing to an acute or acuminate coriaceous portion that extends into the membranous tip, boundary between the coriaceous and membranous portions not marked by minute hairs;

anthers 0.4-1.1 mm.

2n

= 36.

= 36.

Echinochloa crus-pavonis

Echinochloa muricata

Distribution
from FNA
AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; FL; KS; LA; MD; MO; MS; NM; NV; OK; OR; TX; UT; PR
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; WY; MB; NB; NS; ON; QC; SK; Virgin Islands
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Echinochloa crus-pavonis is a native species found in scattered locations from British Columbia to Arizona, east to Florida, and south into South America. It favors marshes and wet places at lower elevations, often being found in the water.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Echinochloa muricata is native to North America, growing from southern Canada to northern Mexico in moist, often disturbed sites (but not rice fields). It resembles E. crus-galli in gross morphology and ecology, but differs consistently by the characters used in the key. The two varieties tend to be distinct, but there is some overlap in both morphology and geography.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Lower paleas more than 1/2 as long as the lemmas; panicles usually drooping
E. crus var. crus-pavonis
1. Lower paleas absent or much less than 1/2 as long as the lemmas; panicles usually stiffly erect
E. crus var. macera
1. Spikelets 2.5-3.8 mm long; lower lemmas unawned or awned, the awns to 10 mm long
E. muricata var. microstachya
1. Spikelets 3.5-5 mm long; lower lemmas usually awned, the awns 6-16 mm long
E. muricata var. muricata
Source FNA vol. 25, p. 398. FNA vol. 25, p. 396.
Parent taxa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa
Sibling taxa
E. colona, E. crus-galli, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. muricata, E. oplismenoides, E. oryzicola, E. oryzoides, E. paludigena, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
E. colona, E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. oplismenoides, E. oryzicola, E. oryzoides, E. paludigena, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
Subordinate taxa
E. crus var. crus-pavonis, E. crus var. macera
E. muricata var. microstachya, E. muricata var. muricata
Name authority unknown (P. Beauv.) Fernald
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