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awnless barnyard grass, jungle rice, jungle ricegrass, or jungle-rice, small barnyard grass, watergrass

Florida barnyard grass, Florida cockspur grass

Habit Plants annual; erect or decumbent, cespitose or spreading, rooting from the lower cauline nodes. Plants annual.
Culms

10-70 cm;

lower nodes glabrous or hispid, hairs appressed;

upper nodes glabrous.

to 150 cm, erect.

Sheaths

glabrous;

ligules absent, ligule region frequently brown-purple;

blades 8-22 cm long, 3-6(10) mm wide, mostly glabrous, sometimes hispid, hairs papillose-based on or near the margins.

glabrous;

ligules absent;

blades 15-60 cm long, 8-20 mm wide, scabrous adaxially.

Panicles

2-12 cm, erect, rachises glabrous or sparsely hispid;

primary branches 5-10, 0.7-2(4) cm, erect to ascending, spikelike, somewhat distant, without secondary branches, axes glabrous or sparsely hispid, hairs 1.5-2.5 mm, papillose-based.

8-40 cm, erect to slightly drooping, rachis nodes hispid, hairs papillose-based;

primary branches 2-19 cm, erect to spreading, often widely spaced, longer branches with secondary branching.

Spikelets

2-3 mm, disarticulating at maturity, pubescent to hispid, hairs usually not papillose-based, tips acute to cuspidate.

3.3-4.5 mm long, 2.4-2.6 mm wide, disarticulating at maturity, greenish or purplish, scabrous and hispid, hairs to 1 mm, often papillose-based.

Caryopses

1.2-1.6 mm, whitish;

embryos 63-83% as long as the caryopses.

1.5-1.8 mm.

Lower

glumes about 1/2 as long as the spikelets;

upper glumes about as long as the spikelets;

lower florets usually sterile, occasionally staminate;

lower lemmas unawned, similar to the upper glumes;

lower paleas subequal to the lemmas;

upper lemmas 2.6-2.9 mm, not or scarcely exceeding the upper glumes, elliptic, coriaceous portion rounded distally, passing abruptly into a sharply differentiated, membranous, soon-withering tip;

anthers 0.7-0.8 mm.

Upper

glumes about as long as the spikelets;

lower florets staminate;

lower lemmas usually awned, awns 1-15 mm, purplish;

lower paleas well-developed;

upper lemmas broadly ovate, narrowing abruptly to the acute or acuminate apices;

anthers of upper florets 1.2-1.7 mm.

2n

= 54.

= unknown.

Echinochloa colona

Echinochloa paludigena

Distribution
from FNA
AL; AR; AZ; CA; FL; GA; IL; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; MO; MS; MT; NC; NJ; NM; OK; OR; PA; SC; TN; TX; VA; VT; WA; HI; PR; Virgin Islands
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from FNA
FL; TX
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Discussion

Echinochloa colona is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. It is adventive and weedy in North America, growing in low-lying, damp to wet, disturbed areas, including rice fields. The unbranched, rather widely-spaced panicle branches make this one of the easier species of Echinochloa to recognize.

Hitchcock (1913) considered that 'colonum' was a non-declining contraction, but dictionaries of Linnaeus' time treated it as a declining adjective. Because Linnaeus was the first to name the species (as "Panicum colonum"), it seems best to follow the practice considered correct in his day; hence "E. colona".

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Echinochloa paludigena is native to swamps, river-banks, and other wet habitats. Reports from Texas and Louisiana appear to be based on misidentifications; Wunderlin (1988) considers E. paludigena as a Florida endemic.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 25, p. 398. FNA vol. 25, p. 394.
Parent taxa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa
Sibling taxa
E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. muricata, E. oplismenoides, E. oryzicola, E. oryzoides, E. paludigena, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
E. colona, E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. muricata, E. oplismenoides, E. oryzicola, E. oryzoides, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
Synonyms E. colonum
Name authority (L.) Link Wiegand
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