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awnless barnyard grass, jungle rice, jungle ricegrass, or jungle-rice, small barnyard grass, watergrass

late barnyard grass, rice barnyardgrass

Habit Plants annual; erect or decumbent, cespitose or spreading, rooting from the lower cauline nodes. Plants annual.
Culms

10-70 cm;

lower nodes glabrous or hispid, hairs appressed;

upper nodes glabrous.

40-150 cm, erect or nearly so, densely tufted;

lower nodes usually antrorsely scabrous or villous;

upper nodes glabrous.

Sheaths

glabrous;

ligules absent, ligule region frequently brown-purple;

blades 8-22 cm long, 3-6(10) mm wide, mostly glabrous, sometimes hispid, hairs papillose-based on or near the margins.

Panicles

2-12 cm, erect, rachises glabrous or sparsely hispid;

primary branches 5-10, 0.7-2(4) cm, erect to ascending, spikelike, somewhat distant, without secondary branches, axes glabrous or sparsely hispid, hairs 1.5-2.5 mm, papillose-based.

8-20 cm, erect to slightly drooping, rachis nodes hispid,with papillose-based hairs to 5.6 mm, internodes usually scabrous, sometimes also with a few papillose-based hairs;

primary branches to 4 cm.

Spikelets

2-3 mm, disarticulating at maturity, pubescent to hispid, hairs usually not papillose-based, tips acute to cuspidate.

4-6 mm, ovoid to ellipsoid, disarticulating at maturity.

Caryopses

1.2-1.6 mm, whitish;

embryos 63-83% as long as the caryopses.

1.7-2.6 mm, brownish;

embryos 89-98% as long as the caryopses.

Lower

glumes about 1/2 as long as the spikelets;

upper glumes about as long as the spikelets;

lower florets usually sterile, occasionally staminate;

lower lemmas unawned, similar to the upper glumes;

lower paleas subequal to the lemmas;

upper lemmas 2.6-2.9 mm, not or scarcely exceeding the upper glumes, elliptic, coriaceous portion rounded distally, passing abruptly into a sharply differentiated, membranous, soon-withering tip;

anthers 0.7-0.8 mm.

sheaths densely pubescent;

upper sheaths glabrous or pubescent at the throat, and sometimes on the collar;

ligules absent;

blades stiff, ascending, lower blades pubescent, upper blades usually glabrous.;

lower glumes usually at least 1/2 as long as the spikelets;

upper glumes equaling or exceeding the upper florets;

lower florets sterile;

lower lemmas often thickened and somewhat coriaceous, unawned or awned, awns to 1.5 mm;

lower paleas well-developed;

upper lemmas broadly ovate to elliptical, coriaceous portion rounded distally, passing abruptly into an early-withering, acuminate, membranus tip that is further demarcated from the coriaceous portion by minute hairs (use 25x magnification);

anthers 0.9-1.2 mm.

2n

= 54.

= 36.

Echinochloa colona

Echinochloa phyllopogon

Distribution
from FNA
AL; AR; AZ; CA; FL; GA; IL; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; MO; MS; MT; NC; NJ; NM; OK; OR; PA; SC; TN; TX; VA; VT; WA; HI; PR; Virgin Islands
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from USDA
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Discussion

Echinochloa colona is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. It is adventive and weedy in North America, growing in low-lying, damp to wet, disturbed areas, including rice fields. The unbranched, rather widely-spaced panicle branches make this one of the easier species of Echinochloa to recognize.

Hitchcock (1913) considered that 'colonum' was a non-declining contraction, but dictionaries of Linnaeus' time treated it as a declining adjective. Because Linnaeus was the first to name the species (as "Panicum colonum"), it seems best to follow the practice considered correct in his day; hence "E. colona".

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Like Echinochloa oryzoides, E. oryzicola is an introduced weed of rice fields, where it grows in the flooded portion, with the rice. The two are quite distinct, with E. oryzicola flowering after Oryza and having a longer embryo and an erect panicle. It is also more likely to have evidently pubescent cauline nodes, leaf sheaths, and collars than E. oryzoides and is never conspicuously awned.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 25, p. 398. FNA vol. 25, p. 402.
Parent taxa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa
Sibling taxa
E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. muricata, E. oplismenoides, E. oryzicola, E. oryzoides, E. paludigena, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
E. colona, E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. muricata, E. oplismenoides, E. oryzoides, E. paludigena, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
Synonyms E. colonum E. crus-galli var. oryzicola
Name authority (L.) Link (Vasinger) Vasinger
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