The green links below add additional plants to the comparison table. Blue links lead to other Web sites.
enable glossary links

awnless barnyard grass, jungle rice, jungle ricegrass, or jungle-rice, small barnyard grass, watergrass

Chihuahuan barnyard grass, Chihuahuan cockspur

Habit Plants annual; erect or decumbent, cespitose or spreading, rooting from the lower cauline nodes. Plants annual.
Culms

10-70 cm;

lower nodes glabrous or hispid, hairs appressed;

upper nodes glabrous.

to 100 cm, erect, succulent, glabrous, branching from the lower nodes.

Sheaths

glabrous;

ligules absent, ligule region frequently brown-purple;

blades 8-22 cm long, 3-6(10) mm wide, mostly glabrous, sometimes hispid, hairs papillose-based on or near the margins.

glabrous or hispid with papillose-based hairs;

ligules absent or the ligule region pubescent;

blades 10-35 cm long, 5-10 mm wide.

Panicles

2-12 cm, erect, rachises glabrous or sparsely hispid;

primary branches 5-10, 0.7-2(4) cm, erect to ascending, spikelike, somewhat distant, without secondary branches, axes glabrous or sparsely hispid, hairs 1.5-2.5 mm, papillose-based.

15-30 cm, narrow;

primary branches appressed to ascending, with papillose-based hairs at the base of the spikelets.

Spikelets

2-3 mm, disarticulating at maturity, pubescent to hispid, hairs usually not papillose-based, tips acute to cuspidate.

4-5 mm, disarticulating at maturity.

Glumes

with hairs over the veins, glabrous, scabrous, or hispid between the veins;

upper glumes about equal to the spikelets, muticous or awned, awns to 1 mm;

lower florets sterile;

lower lemmas unawned or awned, awns 8-16(50) mm;

lower paleas absent or hyaline and subequal to the lemmas;

upper lemmas 4-4.5 mm long, 1.7-1.9 mm wide, elliptic;

anthers 0.5-0.7 mm, purple.

Caryopses

1.2-1.6 mm, whitish;

embryos 63-83% as long as the caryopses.

2.7-2.9 mm long, 1.7-1.8 mm wide, elliptic in outline, mucronate;

embryos about 75% as long as the caryopses;

hila obovate.

Lower

glumes about 1/2 as long as the spikelets;

upper glumes about as long as the spikelets;

lower florets usually sterile, occasionally staminate;

lower lemmas unawned, similar to the upper glumes;

lower paleas subequal to the lemmas;

upper lemmas 2.6-2.9 mm, not or scarcely exceeding the upper glumes, elliptic, coriaceous portion rounded distally, passing abruptly into a sharply differentiated, membranous, soon-withering tip;

anthers 0.7-0.8 mm.

2n

= 54.

= unknown.

Echinochloa colona

Echinochloa oplismenoides

Distribution
from FNA
AL; AR; AZ; CA; FL; GA; IL; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; MO; MS; MT; NC; NJ; NM; OK; OR; PA; SC; TN; TX; VA; VT; WA; HI; PR; Virgin Islands
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AZ
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Echinochloa colona is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. It is adventive and weedy in North America, growing in low-lying, damp to wet, disturbed areas, including rice fields. The unbranched, rather widely-spaced panicle branches make this one of the easier species of Echinochloa to recognize.

Hitchcock (1913) considered that 'colonum' was a non-declining contraction, but dictionaries of Linnaeus' time treated it as a declining adjective. Because Linnaeus was the first to name the species (as "Panicum colonum"), it seems best to follow the practice considered correct in his day; hence "E. colona".

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Echinochloa oplismenoides was first found in the United States, in southern Arizona, in 1993 (Fishbein 1995). It was previously known only from Mexico, with a range that extends from northwestern Mexico to Guatemala. The southern Arizonan plants were found near a cattle tank in wet grasslands. Fishbein stated that it was impossible to tell whether they represented a previously overlooked native species or an introduction.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 25, p. 398. FNA vol. 25, p. 398.
Parent taxa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Echinochloa
Sibling taxa
E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. muricata, E. oplismenoides, E. oryzicola, E. oryzoides, E. paludigena, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
E. colona, E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. esculenta, E. frumentacea, E. muricata, E. oryzicola, E. oryzoides, E. paludigena, E. polystachya, E. pyramidalis, E. walteri
Synonyms E. colonum
Name authority (L.) Link (E. Fourn.) Hitchc.
Web links