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sourgrass

violet crabgrass

Habit Plants perennial; cespitose, shortly rhizomatous, with knotty bases. Plants annual or of indefinite duration.
Culms

80-130 cm, erect, with densely villous cataphylls, branching from the lower and middle nodes.

15-60 cm, erect, usually not branching from the upper nodes;

nodes 3-4.

Sheaths

usually sparsely to densely papillose-hirsute, occasionally glabrous;

ligules 4-6 mm, usually lacerate, not ciliate;

blades 20-50 cm long, 10-17 mm wide, lax, smooth or scabridulous abaxially, scabridulous to scabrous adaxially.

glabrous or sparsely pubescent;

ligules 0.6-2.5 mm;

blades 1.5-9 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, glabrous, with papillose-based hairs basally.

Panicles

20-35 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, with numerous spikelike primary branches;

primary branches 10-15 cm, appressed to ascending at maturity, axes not wing-margined or with wings less than 1/2 as wide as the midribs;

internodes 3-4.5(6) mm (midbranch), bearing spikelets in unequally pedicellate pairs;

secondary branches rarely present;

pedicels not adnate to the branches;

shorter pedicels 0.7-2 mm;

longer pedicels 2.5-5 mm;

terminal pedicels 2-5 mm.

with 2-7 spikelike primary branches in 1-2 verticils;

primary branches 3-12 cm, erect to ascending, axes 0.6-1 mm wide, wing-margined, wings at least 1/2 as wide as the midribs, lower and middle portions of the branches bearing spikelets in groups of 3(4, 5);

secondary branches rarely present;

axillary inflorescences absent.

Spikelets

5.5-8.2 mm (including pubescence), 4.2-5.9 mm (excluding pubescence), narrowly ovate, acuminate.

1.2-1.7 mm, homomorphic, narrowly elliptic.

Lower

glumes 0.6-0.8 mm;

upper glumes 3.5-4.5 mm, 3-5-veined, pubescent on the margins;

lower lemmas 4.1-5.7 mm (exceeded 1.5-5 mm by pubescence), narrowly ovate, 7-veined, pubescent between most, sometimes all, of the veins and on the margins, veins usually obscured by a dense covering of golden-brown hairs, hairs 3-6 mm, spreading at maturity, intercostal regions on either side of the midvein glabrous or pubescent with shorter, fine, white hairs, sometimes intermixed with the golden-brown hairs;

upper lemmas 3.2-4.5 mm, narrowly ovate, brown when immature, dark brown at maturity, acuminate;

anthers 1-1.2 mm.

glumes absent or a veinless, membranous rim;

upper glumes 1.2-1.4 mm, 1/2 as long as to almost equaling the upper lemmas, 3-veined, appressed-pubescent, hairs minutely verrucose;

lower lemmas 1.2-1.7 mm, 5-7-veined, veins equally spaced, region between the 2 inner lateral veins and the margins appressed-pubescent, hairs 0.3-0.5 mm, smooth or minutely verrucose (use 50x magnification), verrucose hairs most abundant near the lemma bases;

upper lemmas light brown when immature, dark brown at maturity;

anthers 0.4-0.6 mm.

2n

= 36.

= 36.

Digitaria insularis

Digitaria violascens

Distribution
from FNA
AL; AZ; FL; IL; MS; TX; HI; PR; Virgin Islands
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; FL; GA; IN; KY; LA; MA; MS; NC; OK; SC; TN; TX; HI; PR
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Digitaria insularis grows in low, open ground of the southern United States, and extends to the West Indies, Mexico, and through Central America to Argentina.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Digitaria violascens is a weedy species that is native to tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. It is now established in the Flora region, primarily in the south-eastern United States, and in Mexico and Central America. It grows in disturbed sites.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 25, p. 370. FNA vol. 25, p. 372.
Parent taxa Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Digitaria Poaceae > subfam. Panicoideae > tribe Paniceae > Digitaria
Sibling taxa
D. abyssinica, D. arenicola, D. bakeri, D. bicornis, D. californica, D. ciliaris, D. cognata, D. didactyla, D. eriantha, D. filiformis, D. floridana, D. gracillima, D. hitchcockii, D. horizontalis, D. ischaemum, D. leucocoma, D. longiflora, D. milanjiana, D. nuda, D. patens, D. pauciflora, D. pubiflora, D. sanguinalis, D. serotina, D. setigera, D. simpsonii, D. texana, D. tomentosa, D. velutina, D. violascens
D. abyssinica, D. arenicola, D. bakeri, D. bicornis, D. californica, D. ciliaris, D. cognata, D. didactyla, D. eriantha, D. filiformis, D. floridana, D. gracillima, D. hitchcockii, D. horizontalis, D. insularis, D. ischaemum, D. leucocoma, D. longiflora, D. milanjiana, D. nuda, D. patens, D. pauciflora, D. pubiflora, D. sanguinalis, D. serotina, D. setigera, D. simpsonii, D. texana, D. tomentosa, D. velutina
Synonyms Trichachne insularis
Name authority (L.) Mez ex Ekman Link
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