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Delphinium viridescens

Wenatchee larkspur

cardinal larkspur, cardinal or scarlet larkspur, scarlet larkspur

Stems

90-150 cm;

base usually green, glabrous.

(33-)50-150(-280) cm;

base reddish, ± puberulent.

Leaves

blade cuneate to semicircular, 2-5 × 3-12 cm, nearly glabrous; ultimate lobes 3-21, width 1-8 mm.

blade round to reniform, 3-7 × 5-10 cm, nearly glabrous; ultimate lobes 0-27, width 5-40 mm (basal), 0.5-6 mm (cauline).

Inflorescences

25-80-flowered, dense;

pedicel 0.5-2 cm, glandular-pubescent;

bracteoles 1-4 mm from flowers, green, lanceolate, 3.5-6 mm, glandular-pubescent.

10-40(-80)-flowered, open, narrowly pyramidal;

pedicel spreading, (1-)2-5 cm, ± puberulent;

bracteoles (2-)7-15(-25) mm from flowers, green, linear, 3-7 mm, glabrous to puberulent.

Flowers

sepals yellowish green, nearly glabrous, lateral sepals forward pointing, 7-9 × 3-4 mm, spurs decurved, 30-45° below horizontal, often hooked apically, 8-11 mm;

lower petal blades ± covering stamens, 4-6 mm, clefts 0.5-1.5 mm;

hairs centered, mostly near junction of blade and claw, yellow.

sepals red, glabrous, lateral sepals forward pointing, 11-15 × 5-8 mm, spurs straight, stout, slightly ascending, 15-24 mm;

lower petal blades nearly coplanar with claw, exposing stamens, 2-5 mm, clefts 0.5-1.5 mm;

hairs centered at base of cleft, short, sparse, yellow.

Fruits

8-11 mm, 2.5-3 times longer than wide, puberulent.

erect, 9-18 mm, 2.5-4 times longer than wide, glabrous.

Seeds

± wing-margined;

seed coat cells with surfaces ± roughened.

unwinged;

seed coat cells with margins undulate, surfaces roughened.

2n

= 16.

Delphinium viridescens

Delphinium cardinale

Phenology Flowering summer. Flowering spring–early summer.
Habitat Wet meadows and streamsides in coniferous forest, heavy clay soils Slopes (often unstable) in chaparral
Elevation 500-1000 m [1600-3300 ft] 50-1500 m [200-4900 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; Mexico (Baja California, Baja California Sur)
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Of conservation concern.

Delphinium viridescens is local in mountains southwest of Wenatchee, Washington.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Hybrids between Delphinium cardinale and D. parryi have been named D. ×inflexum Davidson. Because of horticultural interest in red-flowered delphiniums, garden hybrids have been made with D. elatum, D. hesperium, D. hutchinsoniae, D. nudicaule, D. parishii, D. penardii, D. scopulorum, D. tatsienense Franchet, D. uliginosum, and D. zalil Aitchison & Hemsley, although D. cardinale does not grow with any of these in the wild.

Plants of Delphinium cardinale are quite variable in size, leaf distribution, and pubescence, resulting in considerable differences between, and sometimes within, populations. No patterns could be seen, however, to justify recognition of separate taxa within D. cardinale. Populations farther south (in Baja California, Mexico) may represent a distinct entity; they require further study.

The only possible confusion between Delphinium cardinale (seeds not ringed, fruits erect, grows in relatively dry sites) and another taxon might occur with Delphinium nudicaule (seeds ringed, fruits spreading, grows in moist habitats). The two are separated geographically and phenologically (although D. cardinale may begin flowering in southern California before D. nudicaule has finished in northern California).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 3. FNA vol. 3.
Parent taxa Ranunculaceae > Delphinium > sect. Diedropetala > subsect. Multiplex Ranunculaceae > Delphinium > sect. Diedropetala > subsect. Wislizenana
Sibling taxa
D. alabamicum, D. alpestre, D. andersonii, D. andesicola, D. antoninum, D. bakeri, D. barbeyi, D. basalticum, D. bicolor, D. brachycentrum, D. californicum, D. cardinale, D. carolinianum, D. decorum, D. depauperatum, D. distichum, D. elatum, D. exaltatum, D. geraniifolium, D. geyeri, D. glareosum, D. glaucescens, D. glaucum, D. gracilentum, D. gypsophilum, D. hansenii, D. hesperium, D. hutchinsoniae, D. inopinum, D. lineapetalum, D. luteum, D. madrense, D. menziesii, D. multiplex, D. newtonianum, D. novomexicanum, D. nudicaule, D. nuttallianum, D. nuttallii, D. parishii, D. parryi, D. patens, D. polycladon, D. purpusii, D. ramosum, D. recurvatum, D. robustum, D. sapellonis, D. scaposum, D. scopulorum, D. stachydeum, D. sutherlandii, D. treleasei, D. tricorne, D. trolliifolium, D. uliginosum, D. umbraculorum, D. variegatum, D. wootonii, D. xantholeucum
D. alabamicum, D. alpestre, D. andersonii, D. andesicola, D. antoninum, D. bakeri, D. barbeyi, D. basalticum, D. bicolor, D. brachycentrum, D. californicum, D. carolinianum, D. decorum, D. depauperatum, D. distichum, D. elatum, D. exaltatum, D. geraniifolium, D. geyeri, D. glareosum, D. glaucescens, D. glaucum, D. gracilentum, D. gypsophilum, D. hansenii, D. hesperium, D. hutchinsoniae, D. inopinum, D. lineapetalum, D. luteum, D. madrense, D. menziesii, D. multiplex, D. newtonianum, D. novomexicanum, D. nudicaule, D. nuttallianum, D. nuttallii, D. parishii, D. parryi, D. patens, D. polycladon, D. purpusii, D. ramosum, D. recurvatum, D. robustum, D. sapellonis, D. scaposum, D. scopulorum, D. stachydeum, D. sutherlandii, D. treleasei, D. tricorne, D. trolliifolium, D. uliginosum, D. umbraculorum, D. variegatum, D. viridescens, D. wootonii, D. xantholeucum
Name authority Leiberg: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 11: 39. (1897) Hooker: Bot. Mag., plate 4887. (1855)
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