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salts rattlebox, smooth crotalaria, smooth rattlebox, striped crotalaria

Habit Trees, shrubs, lianas, herbs, or vines, unarmed or armed.

pinnate, palmate, unifoliolate, or 3-foliolate, rarely 2 or 4-foliolate, not bipinnate.


usually papilionaceous, rarely nonpapilionaceous (in Amorpha, Parryella, sometimes Clitoria), bilateral, rarely asymmetrical, or radial;

sepals connate at least basally;

petals 5(or 6), rarely only 1 (banner) present or 0;

stamens (1–9)10(+), filaments connate, or adaxial filament ± distinct, rarely all filaments distinct, usually heteromorphic, anthers basifixed or dorsifixed;

pollen in monads.


legumes, dehiscent or indehiscent, or loments, drupes, or samaroid.


with complex hilar valve, hilum elongate, pleurogram absent;

embryo usually curved, rarely straight.


nectaries absent on petiole and rachis, sometimes stipular, stipellar, or bracteal, rarely on sepals.


lateral, free, or absent.


= 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

Crotalaria pallida

Fabaceae subfam. faboideae

from USDA
Africa [Introduced in North America]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
nearly worldwide

Varieties 2 (1 in the flora).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Genera ca. 503, species ca. 14,000 (111 genera, 1162 species in the flora).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)


Key to Genera of Subfamily Faboideae

1. Trees, shrubs (sometimes suffrutescent), or woody vines.
→ 2
2. Leaves palmately foliolate or appearing so, or all or mostly unifoliolate, or reduced to phyllodes.
→ 3
3. Leaves reduced to spinelike phyllodes; corollas yellow; fruits legumes, partly enclosed by persistent calyx, densely villous.
3. Leaves not reduced to spinelike phyllodes; corollas white, creamy white, pink, reddish to blue-purple, orange-yellow, or yellow; fruits legumes or loments, usually visible, glabrous, glabrate, or pubescent.
→ 4
4. Leaves all unifoliolate, often reduced or deciduous and absent.
→ 5
5. Shrubs or small trees with erect or scandent stems; leaflet blades 25–80 mm, elliptic or ovate; corollas white, creamy white, or yellowish, sometimes pinkish; fruits indehiscent; Florida.
5. Trees or shrubs with erect stems; leaflet blades 2–35 mm, sometimes early deciduous; corollas white, yellow, pink to reddish purple, or blue to violet-purple; fruits dehiscent or indehiscent; sw, w United States.
→ 6
6. Stems green, rushlike, unarmed; corollas yellow; fruits dehiscent with twisting valves; introduced, w United States.
6. Stems brownish green, branched, armed; corollas pinkish, blue, or purplish, sometimes white; fruits indehiscent; desert Southwest.
→ 7
7. Fruits legumes, enclosed in calyx or exserted, plump to compressed, gland-dotted; seeds usually 1; corollas blue to purple or violet, sometimes white; stems gland-dotted.
7. Fruits loments, exserted, terete, moniliform (constricted between seeds), not gland-dotted, glabrous; seeds (1 or)2–8(–10); corollas pinkish to reddish purple; stems not gland-dotted.
4. Leaves palmate or appearing palmate, sometimes unifoliolate (sometimes mixed with pinnate leaves).
→ 8
8. Leaves unifoliolate (sometimes mixed with pinnate leaves), or appearing palmate.
→ 9
9. Leaves unifoliolate or odd-pinnate; stipules subspinescent; stems broomlike, green; inflorescences mostly solitary flowers in axils of distal unifoliolate leaves; legume valves elastically dehiscent; trans- Pecos Texas.
9. Leaves appearing palmate; stipules and leaf rachis spinescent or spine-tipped; stems not broomlike, brownish; inflorescences 1–4(or 5)-flowered, flowers solitary or in fascicles; legume valves twisting in dehis­cence; Alaska, B.C., Alberta, Quebec, c, e United States.
8. Leaflets 1–11(–17).
→ 10
10. Leaves (1–)5–11(–17)-foliolate; stipules adnate to petiole; keel atten­uate; stamens monadelphous.
10. Leaves 1–5-foliolate; stipules usually not adnate to petiole or absent; keel not attenuate; stamens distinct or monadelphous.
→ 11
11. Stamens distinct; corollas reddish purple; shrubs with thorn-tipped stems; rarely fruiting; California native.
11. Stamens monadelphous; corollas white or yellow; shrubs or trees, unarmed; introduced widely.
→ 12
12. Trees or large shrubs; inflorescences axillary, pendulous racemes; leaves palmately trifoliolate; corollas yellow; legumes pendulous, constricted between seeds; introduced, British Columbia, California, Maine, Massachusetts, Oregon, Utah, Washington.
12. Shrubs; inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemes or glomerules or flowers solitary, or clustered on short axillary shoots; distal leaves often reduced and unifoliolate; corollas yellow or white; legumes pendulous or erect, not constricted between seeds; introduced widely.
→ 13
13. Calyx cylindric, 8–9 mm; corollas white; twigs erect becoming pendent.
13. Calyx campanulate, 3–7(–15) mm; corollas yellow or white; twigs erect or ascending, sometimes becoming pendent.
→ 14
14. Corollas white; styles incurved; calyx bilabiate, adaxial lip 2-lobed; stems nearly leafless.
14. Corollas yellow or white; styles abruptly incurved; calyx bilabiate or barely or scarcely lobed; stems generally leafy; seeds with appendage.
→ 15
15. Styles abruptly curved near middle; calyx lobes connate most of their length, shallowly lobed; leaves not caducous; corollas yellow or white; legumes laterally compressed or inflated, explo­sively dehiscent.
15. Styles abruptly incurved distally; calyx abaxial lip 3-lobed, adaxial lip 2-lobed; leaves often caducous; corollas yellow; legumes inflated, not explosively dehiscent.
2. Leaves pinnate, not reduced, rarely unifoliolate; leaflets 3–61(–96+).
→ 16
16. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, usually not unifoliolate or reduced to spines.
→ 17
17. Vines trailing, twining and high climbing, or creeping; inflorescences pseudoracemes.
→ 18
18. Calyx 5.5–7.5 mm; leaflet margins entire, not lobed or sinuate; stipules 2.5–3 mm; legumes indehiscent; lianas to 5 m.
18. Calyx 6–18 mm; leaflet margins usually lobed, toothed, or sinuate, sometimes entire; stipules 5–16(–25) mm; legumes dehiscent; vines 2–30 m.
→ 19
19. Herbaceous vines, 2–5(–10) m; stipules linear-lanceolate, 5–11 mm; inflo­rescence bracts setaceous; introduced, Florida.
19. Woody or coarsely herbaceous vines, climbing and creeping, to 30 m; stipules peltate, 8–16(–25) mm; inflorescence bracts ovate to lanceolate; introduced widely.
17. Shrubs, suffrutescent subshrubs, or trees, not creeping; inflorescences pseudo­racemes or racemes.
→ 20
20. Fruits indehiscent; seeds 1.
→ 21
21. Shrubs; stems and leaves not gland-dotted; fruits loments with 1 article, elliptic to suborbicular, pubescent, without swordlike beak; inflorescences pseudoracemes (each cluster 2–4-flowered), rarely capitate; widespread.
21. Suffrutescent subshrubs; stems and leaves gland-dotted; fruits legumes, ovoid, with swordlike beak; inflorescences dense, headlike racemes; intro­duced, California.
20. Fruits dehiscent or indehiscent; seeds 1–12.
→ 22
22. Shrubs or subshrubs; inflorescences axillary racemes, 8–60+-flowered, often appearing spicate; hairs biramous (2-branched); legumes not con­stricted between seeds.
22. Trees or shrubs; inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or pseudo­racemes, 1–80[–100]-flowered; hairs not biramous; legumes depressed or constricted between seeds.
→ 23
23. Shrubs, short-lived, unarmed; stipels setiform; leaflet blades gland-dotted abaxially; corollas yellow, orange, red, or purplish; legumes depressed between seeds; seeds white to cream and brown, purplish, or almost black, sometimes mottled.
23. Trees or shrubs, armed with recurved prickles; stipels swollen, gland­like; leaflet blades not gland-dotted; corollas red; legumes regularly or irregularly constricted between seeds; seeds red to orange-red or orange, sometimes with black markings.
16. Leaves odd- or even-pinnate, rarely subpinnate or unifoliolate, leaflets (1–)3–96+.
→ 24
24. Flowers apetalous or corollas with banner only; surfaces gland-dotted; inflorescences terminal, racemes or spikes; seeds 1 or 2.
→ 25
25. Corollas with banner only, blue, purple, or white.
25. Corollas absent or only banner present, yellow.
→ 26
26. Leaflet blades linear-filiform or oblong-elliptic; calyx tube not 10-ribbed; corolla absent; legumes prominently gland-dotted; seeds 1 or 2; sw United States (Colorado Plateau).
26. Leaflet blades suborbiculate to oblong-ovate; calyx tube 10-ribbed; corolla absent or vestigial banner present, yellow; legumes with scattered glands; seed 1; ne Arizona.
24. Flowers with corollas; surfaces glandular or not; inflorescences terminal or axillary, usually racemes, panicles, fascicles, or flowers solitary, rarely pseudoracemes, corymbs, or spikes; seeds 1–40.
→ 27
27. Stamens distinct or connate proximally.
→ 28
28. Legumes indehiscent; bracteoles present; corollas purple, blue-purple, lilac, lavender, yellow, pink, or white; seeds usually red, dull red, reddish brown, or black, rarely orange or yellow.
→ 29
29. Leaflet blades not leathery; inflorescences racemes or panicles; calyx trun­cate; corollas usually white or yellow, rarely pink or purple; stamens 8; legumes fleshy, straight to curved, moniliform; seeds black.
29. Leaflet blades leathery; inflorescences racemes; calyx with obvious lobes; corollas usually shades of purple, rarely white; stamens 10; legumes papery, leathery, or woody, torose to torulose, straight to slightly curved or subglobose to cylindric; seeds usually red or dull red to reddish brown, rarely orange or yellow.
28. Legumes dehiscent; bracteoles present or absent; corollas white, creamy white, or yellow; seeds light brown to yellow.
→ 30
30. Leaflet blades densely villous, sericeous, or glabrescent adaxially (in S. tomentosa); stipules usually present, caducous; legumes not compressed, narrowly oblong-moniliform; coastal near beaches.
30. Leaflet blades glabrous adaxially; stipules absent; legumes compressed laterally, elliptic to linear or lanceolate, not moniliform; inland in forests.
→ 31
31. Leaflets alternate; axillary buds enclosed in petiole base; inflorescences pendulous panicles; calyx tubular, slightly zygomorphic; legumes not winged along margin; seeds 5–8, reniform, brown.
31. Leaflets opposite or subopposite; axillary buds exposed; inflorescences erect racemes; calyx campanulate; legumes winged along one suture; seeds 1–3, ellipsoidal, yellow.
27. Stamens monadelphous, submonadelphous, diadelphous, or connate at least 1/2 their length.
→ 32
32. Stamens monadelphous, submonadelphous, or connate 1/2 their length (vexillary stamen may be distinct at base or absent).
→ 33
33. Trees, shrubs, or vines; stamens 9 or 10; seeds 1 or 3–8; Florida.
→ 34
34. Woody or suffrutescent vines; leaves even-pinnate; seeds red, black, red and black, black and white, or whitish; stamens 9 (vexillary stamen absent); fruits legumes, curved, beaked, elastically dehiscent; seeds (1–)3–7.
34. Shrubs or trees; leaves odd-pinnate; seeds reddish brown to dark brown; stamens 10; fruits legumes or loments, straight, not beaked, indehiscent or tardily dehiscent; seeds 1 or 3–8.
→ 35
35. Fruits loments, leathery, wings papery (10–20 mm wide); calyx with 5 short lobes; seeds 3–8; s Florida coastal hammocks
35. Fruits legumes, woody or rigidly leathery, without wings; calyx truncate, lobes obsolete; seed 1; introduced in Florida, waste places and thickets.
33. Shrubs or subshrubs; stamens (4 or)5, 9, or 10; seeds 1(or 2); widespread, including Florida.
→ 36
36. Flowers papilionaceous, petals all arising from receptacle (hypanthium rim), wings and keel not epistemonous; banner reflexed less than 90º; shrubs, subshrubs, or trees, armed or unarmed, sterile shoots sometimes sharp-tipped; deserts, sw United States.
36. Flowers conventionally papilionaceous or not, only banner arising from receptacle (hypanthium rim), wings and keel epistemonous, arising laterally or terminally from stamen column; banner reflexed 90º; herbs, shrubs, or subshrubs, usually unarmed (rarely thorns present in Dalea); widespread.
→ 37
37. Calyx ribs not anastomosing; leaflet blades with pale sinuous lines, single gland between petiolules; trichomes stiff, short, not spirally twisted; fruits loments, stipitate; se Arizona.
37. Calyx ribs usually anastomosing, forming closed arches; leaflet blades without sinuous lines, 2 adaxial intrapetiolular glands and 2 abaxial postpetiolular glands often present between opposing leaflets; trichomes spirally twisted; fruits legumes, sessile; widespread.
32. Stamens diadelphous (vexillary stamen sometimes slightly proximally attached to others).
→ 38
38. Leaves mostly even-pinnate, rarely odd-pinnate (or leaflets irregularly arranged).
→ 39
39. Trees or shrubs, armed with spine-tipped, persistent leaf rachises, or sometimes with spinescent stipules.
→ 40
40. Trees to 10 m; stipules 4–10 mm, spinescent; leaves even- or odd-pinnate, leaflets (8 or)9–21(–24); corollas whitish to purplish; styles with pollen brush surrounding distal 1/2; legumes stipitate-glandular; Arizona, California.
40. Shrubs 1–3 m; stipules 1–4 mm, sometimes spinescent; leaves even-pinnate, leaflets 2 or 4(–10); corollas purple to lilac or white; styles without pollen brush; legumes glabrous; introduced, Saskatchewan, California, Utah.
39. Shrubs, usually unarmed, sometimes weakly prickly or spiny.
→ 41
41. Inflorescences fascicles or short racemes of 1–5 flowers.
→ 42
42. Corollas mostly whitish, sometimes tinged pinkish; styles tufted with pollen brush; stipules 3–5 mm, subulate; legumes constricted between seeds; s Texas.
42. Corollas yellow; styles without pollen brush; stipules 5–9 mm, sometimes spine-tipped; legumes not constricted between seeds; intro­duced widely.
41. Inflorescences longer racemes or panicles, with 1–40+ flowers.
→ 43
43. Calyx lobes shorter than tube; corollas white, pale yellow to orange or red, with or without purple spots; styles with spreading hairs; leaflets folding closed at night; legumes not glandular, with spongy mesocarp, bladdery-inflated, sometimes winged.
43. Calyx lobes equal to or longer than tube; corollas mostly whitish; styles with tufted or lateral pollen brush; leaflets not folding; legumes glandular, not spongy, inflated, or winged.
38. Leaves odd-pinnate (sometimes irregularly so).
→ 44
44. Inflorescences racemes, flowers fascicled or in viscid-glandular racemes; Arizona.
44. Inflorescences racemes, panicles, corymbs, or solitary flowers, glandular or eglandular.
→ 45
45. Corollas not typically papilionaceous, petals scarcely differentiated, subequal, white, sometimes becoming purple; stamens visible; inflorescences spikelike racemes; legumes indehiscent; seeds 1(or 2).
45. Corollas papilionaceous, white, creamy, yellow, pink to purple, azure, or rose; stamens generally hidden within keel; inflorescences racemes, panicles, corymbs, or solitary flowers; legumes dehiscent or indehiscent; seeds 1–10(–16).
→ 46
46. Legumes sessile, laterally compressed, tardily dehiscent; trees or shrubs, often armed with spinescent stipules; corollas whitish or pinkish.
46. Legumes stipitate, inflated or compressed, dehiscent or indehiscent; trees, shrubs, or vines, unarmed; corollas yellow, white, creamy white, pink to purple, reddish purple, azure, or rose.
→ 47
47. Legumes bladdery-inflated; corollas bright yellow, banner sometimes with red markings.
47. Legumes flattened, compressed, slightly inflated, plump, or cylindric, not bladdery-inflated; corollas yellow, white, creamy white, pink to purple, reddish purple, azure, or rose.
→ 48
48. Inflorescences axillary, flowers solitary; leaflets (19–)23–59; corollas yellow; seeds 1 or 2; sw Texas.
48. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemes; leaflets 1–25; corollas yellowish, white, creamy white, pink to purple, reddish purple, azure, or rose; seeds 1–14; Arizona and se United States.
→ 49
49. Racemes 4–7-flowered; peduncles and pedicels glandular-hirsute; calyx tubular; corollas usually yellowish; legumes oblong, slightly inflated; s Arizona.
49. Racemes 10–100-flowered; peduncles and pedicels eglandular (except sometimes Wisteria pedicels with clavate glands); calyx campanulate; corollas yellowish, white, creamy white, pink to purple, reddish purple, azure, or rose; legumes linear, oblong to elliptic, oblanceolate, subreniform, or subglobose, plump, cylindric, compressed, or flattened; c, e, s United States.
→ 50
50. Legumes narrowly ellipsoid to oblong, compressed, often winged, samaroid; seeds 1 or 2(–4); leaflets 3 or 5; trees; introduced, s Florida.
50. Legumes linear, ovoid, linear-oblong, oblong-elliptic, oblan­ceolate, or subglobose, not narrowly ellipsoid, not winged; seeds 1–10; leaflets (7 or)9–21(–25); trees or vines, rarely shrubs; c, s, e United States.
→ 51
51. Legumes drupaceous, pendent, indehiscent; trees; intro­duced, Florida.
51. Legumes not drupaceous, erect, dehiscent; trees or woody vines; c, s, e United States.
→ 52
52. Twining woody vines; inflorescences terminal, pendent racemes; calyx obviously lobed; legumes flattened or cylindric, torulose; c, s, e United States.
52. Trees; inflorescences axillary racemes; calyx lobes inconspicuous; legumes laterally compressed, linear, not torulose; introduced, Florida.
1. Herbs or herbaceous vines, stems annual, biennial, or perennial.
→ 53
53. Leaves all or mostly unifoliolate (or leaflets obsolescent).
→ 54
54. Stamens monadelphous.
→ 55
55. Suffrutescent subshrubs, gland-dotted when young, sterile shoots usually sharp-tipped; inflorescences loosely 1–20+-flowered, with thornlike tip; corollas usually blue to blue-purple, rarely white, banner with yellow eye; legumes gland-dotted; seeds usually 1, rarely 2; sw deserts.
55. Herbs, not gland-dotted when young, short shoots absent; inflorescences loose or not, 1–100-flowered, unarmed; corollas usually blue, pink, rose, yellow, or white, rarely orangish or lavender, banner spot white, cream, pink, maroon, or dark blue; legumes not gland-dotted; seeds 1–70; widespread.
→ 56
56. Stems persistently green, photosynthetic, glabrous, rushlike; leaves uni­foliolate or obsolescent; corollas yellow; legumes linear-oblong; seeds 6–18; introduced, California, Oregon, Texas, Washington.
56. Stems not persistently green and photosynthetic, glabrous or pubescent, not rushlike; leaves palmately compound or unifoliolate; corollas usually blue, pink, rose, yellow, or white, rarely orangish or lavender; legumes oblong, ovoid, ellipsoid, cylindric, or globose; seeds 1–70; widespread.
→ 57
57. Leaflet blades 5–150 mm; corollas usually yellow, sometimes orangish, rarely white, blue, or lavender; legumes usually inflated; seeds 1–70, oblique-cordiform to oblong-reniform; widespread.
57. Leaflet blades (10–)20–270 mm; corollas pink, rose, or purple; legumes usually oblong, not inflated; seeds 2–7, spheric, lentiform or angulate; Florida.
54. Stamens diadelphous (except Orbexilum sometimes monadelphous proximally).
→ 58
58. Herbs, annual; leaves sessile; inflorescences axillary, flowers solitary; corollas pinkish; seeds 4-angled with vertical constriction; Arizona.
58. Herbs, annual, perennial, or suffrutescent, or vines; leaves petiolate; inflo­rescences axillary, terminal, or leaf-opposed, usually pseudoracemes, racemes, or spikes, rarely panicles; corollas purple, blue, pink, red, orange, or yellow; seeds reniform, oblong, subglobose, ovoid to ellipsoid, obovate, or 4-angled, without constriction; c, e, se United States.
→ 59
59. Herbs, not gland-dotted; stems uncinulate-pubescent; corollas red to reddish blue, reddish violet, orange, orange-buff, pink, pinkish lavender, or white; fruits loments; seeds 2–8; introduced, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Texas.
59. Herbs or vines, mostly gland-dotted; stems not uncinulate-pubescent; corollas yellow, yellow-orange, violet, purple, or purplish blue; fruits legumes; seeds 1 or 2; c, e, se United States.
→ 60
60. Legumes dehiscent, not rugose; corollas yellow or yellow-orange; herbaceous vines; inflorescences usually axillary, rarely terminal, usually racemes, sometimes heads or clustered, 1–3-flowered; c, e, se United States.
60. Legumes indehiscent, rugose; corollas violet, purple, or purplish blue; erect herbs; inflorescences terminal, spikes, 5–50-flowered; Florida, Georgia.
53. Leaves 3–96+-foliolate, distalmost leaves sometimes reduced and unifoliolate.
→ 61
61. Herbs, sometimes subshrubs; leaves mostly palmately compound; leaflets (1–)3–11(–17), sometimes unifoliolate or pseudopalmate, rarely phyllodic.
→ 62
62. Stamens distinct.
→ 63
63. Legumes laterally compressed, valves papery, slowly dehiscent; ovaries short- stipitate; corollas yellow.
63. Legumes inflated, valves leathery, indehiscent; ovaries long-stipitate; corollas white, yellow, violet, or blue.
62. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous.
→ 64
64. Stamens monadelphous.
→ 65
65. Fruits bristly loments (with 2–15 segments); leaflets 2 or 4, blade surfaces sometimes punctate; corollas yellow or orange-yellow; inflorescences subtended by enlarged bracts; filaments equal.
65. Fruits legumes, not bristly; leaflets 1–11(–17), blade surfaces not punctate; corollas yellow, white, purple, or blue, sometimes orangish, lavender, or rose; inflorescence bracts present but not enlarged; filaments alternately long and short.
→ 66
66. Legumes usually inflated; corollas yellow, sometimes orangish; leaflets 1 or 3; seeds 1–70, oblique-cordiform to oblong-reniform, becoming loose at maturity; aril sometimes conspicuous; mostly e United States.
66. Legumes laterally compressed; corollas blue to purple, sometimes white, yellow, pink, or rose; leaflets (1–)5–11(–17); seeds 2–12, spheric, lentiform, or angulate, not becoming loose; aril absent; mostly w North America.
64. Stamens diadelphous.
→ 67
67. Fruits spirally coiled.
67. Fruits straight or curved.
→ 68
68. Herbs, especially leaves, calyx, and fruits, usually gland-dotted or glandular-pubescent.
→ 69
69. Calyx not enlarging as fruit matures; leaves sometimes deciduous by anthesis except basally, leaflets (1 or)3–5.
69. Calyx enlarging, often somewhat inflating with fruit maturation; leaves persistent, leaflets (1–)3–7(or 8).
→ 70
70. Fruits rugose, glabrous, sometimes glandular-punctate, well exserted beyond the calyx; calyx campanulate in fruit.
70. Fruits not rugose, usually pubescent, included in calyx except for beak; calyx gibbous-campanulate in fruit.
68. Herbs not gland-dotted.
→ 71
71. Fruits enclosed within calyx or corolla, or slightly exserted.
→ 72
72. Hairs silvery, dolabriform (branched in middle); leaflet blade margins entire; herbs subacaulescent and tufted, or prostrate or cushion-forming; flowers in short racemes of 2–6(–10) flowers.
72. Hairs not dolabriform; leaflet blade margins usually toothed or entire, rarely lobed; herbs caulescent or acaulescent, usually erect or ascending, sometimes decumbent to prostrate, rarely mat-forming; flowers in umbels, headlike racemes, or spikes, rarely solitary.
→ 73
73. Stipules absent or glandular.
73. Stipules conspicuous, not glandular.
71. Fruits well exserted from calyx or corolla.
→ 74
74. Stipules absent or glandular.
74. Stipules conspicuous, not glandular.
→ 75
75. Fruits elliptic or broadly ovate to ± globose, not reniform; leaflet blade margins entire throughout; inflorescences small, axillary clusters (pseudoracemes), with 1–4 flowers; corollas with pink-purple banner, white wings, keel apex purple.
75. Fruits falcate to reniform-incurved; leaflet blade margins partly serrate; inflorescences cylindrical heads with (5–)15–50 flowers; corollas yellow.
61. Vines, herbs, or subshrubs; leaves usually pinnate, rarely unifoliolate or phyllodic; leaflets (1 or)3–80(–96+).
→ 76
76. Leaves mostly unifoliolate or 3-foliolate.
→ 77
77. Herbs with separate foliose and flowering stems.
→ 78
78. Corollas red; leaves alternate; fruits legumes; s United States.
78. Corollas usually pink, rarely white; leaves usually 4–7-whorled, sometimes scattered on stems; fruits loments; North America, Great Plains, and eastward.
77. Vines, herbs, or subshrubs without separate foliose and flowering stems.
→ 79
79. Stamens monadelphous at anthesis (vexillary stamen becoming distinct in Hoita).
→ 80
80. Wings and keel epistemonous, attached terminally or laterally to stamen tube.
→ 81
81. Ovule 1; stems eglandular; leaflet blade surfaces with sinuous lines (lineolate); calyx ribs not anastomosing; trichomes stiff, short; California.
81. Ovules 2; stems gland-dotted; leaflet blade surfaces not lineolate; calyx ribs anastomosing distally; trichomes flexuous, spirally twisting; widespread.
80. Wings and keel not epistemonous, attached below staminal tube.
→ 82
82. Fruits indehiscent, not exserted from calyx, apiculate or beaked, eglandular or sparsely glandular; seed 1; Pacific States, British Columbia.
→ 83
83. Corollas purple or purplish-tinged; calyx not enlarging in fruit, becoming papery; fruits with secondary internal wall of sclereids; California.
83. Corollas cream or yellow; calyx enlarging and concealing fruit, not becoming papery; fruits without secondary internal wall of sclereids; Pacific states, British Columbia.
82. Fruits dehiscent or indehiscent, exserted from calyx, apiculate-beaked or not, eglandular; seeds 1–15; widespread.
→ 84
84. Fruits loments, indehiscent.
→ 85
85. Stipules amplexicaul, adnate to petioles for most of its length; inflorescences short spikes or solitary flowers, 1–15-flowered; bracts foliaceous, persistent; corollas yellow or orange-yellow.
85. Stipules free from petioles; inflorescences simple or compound racemes or pseudoracemes, or long spikes, (1 or)2–51-flowered; bracts not foliaceous, persistent or deciduous; corollas usually pink, blue, shades of purple, or white, rarely yellow.
→ 86
86. Stipels present, persistent; calyx lobes longer than tube; loments with (1 or)2–10 segments, stipitate or sessile.
86. Stipels absent or early-deciduous; calyx lobes shorter than tube; loments with 2–5 segments, distinctly stipitate.
84. Fruits legumes, dehiscent or indehiscent.
→ 87
87. Herbs, thorns present or absent; stipules adnate to petiole; leaflet margins usually serrulate at least distally, rarely entire; inflorescences racemes, with 1–3 flowers; legumes usually not exceeding calyx.
87. Vines, trailing or climbing, or herbs, unarmed; stipules not adnate to petiole; leaflet margins entire or lobed; inflorescences pseudoracemes or panicles, with 8–50 flowers; legumes larger, well exceeding calyx.
→ 88
88. Stipules caducous, deltate, or obsolete; ventral margin of fruit 3–5 ribbed; inflorescences panicles, with 8–50 flowers.
88. Stipules present, conspicuous, peltate; ventral margin of fruit not ribbed; inflorescences pseudoracemes, with 15–40 flowers.
79. Stamens usually diadelphous, rarely distinct (except becoming diadelphous in Pueraria as fruit expands).
→ 89
89. Corollas large (20–60+ mm); banners much larger than wings and keel (more than 2 times); inflorescences 1 or 2(–4)-flowered, axillary pseudoracemes; flowers resupinate.
→ 90
90. Calyx funnelform, lobes shorter than tube; wings extending beyond the keel; styles geniculate distally; fruits 6–11 mm wide, convex and depressed between seeds or flat.
90. Calyx campanulate, lobes equal to or longer than tube; wings subequal to keel; styles incurved, broadly U-shaped; fruits 3–6 mm wide, flat with raised rib near margin.
89. Corollas smaller, or if not, then banner not much larger than other petals; inflorescences 1–500+-flowered, axillary or terminal racemes, pseudoracemes, fascicles, panicles, umbels, heads, or flowers solitary; flowers not resupinate.
→ 91
91. Leaflet margins usually at least partly dentate or serrate, lateral vein tips slightly exserted; fruits indehiscent (or breaking crosswise or irregularly), sometimes prickly and spirally coiled; seeds 1–few; corollas 2–27 mm.
→ 92
92. Fruits spirally coiled, sometimes only falcate, with or without prickles.
92. Fruits not spirally coiled, without prickles.
→ 93
93. Fruits included in marcescent corolla or slightly exserted, usually papery or membranous; flowers usually in umbellate racemes.
93. Fruits exserted beyond corolla remnants, thickly leathery; flowers in slen­der or short racemes.
→ 94
94. Stems usually erect or ascending, sometimes decumbent; inflorescences elongate, axillary racemes; seeds 1 or 2(or 3).
94. Stems usually decumbent, procumbent, or prostrate, sometimes ascending or erect; inflorescences racemes or heads, sometimes umbellate, or flowers solitary; seeds 1–30.
→ 95
95. Corollas 5.5–18 mm, banner without major veins; legumes linear to ovoid or rhomboid-obovoid; seeds oblong to ovoid.
95. Corollas 2–4(–6) mm, banner with major basal vein; legumes terete, compressed, or flat; seeds mostly reniform.
91. Leaflet margins entire, rarely lobed, or if dentate, vein tips not exserted (sometimes exserted in a few teeth in Pachyrhizus); fruits dehiscent through sutures or indehiscent; seeds 1–25(–30); corollas often greater than 27 mm.
→ 96
96. Keel incurved 90–180º or spirally coiled.
→ 97
97. Stipules auriculate or peltate; corollas yellow, purple, or white; legumes resupinate by twisting of pedicel; seeds mostly with a white aril (protruding hilum).
97. Stipules not auriculate or peltate; corollas usually pink, purple, red, or orange, rarely yellow or white; legumes not resupinate; seeds usually without aril.
→ 98
98. Hairs finely uncinate, minutely hooked; floral nodes not swollen; pedicels equal to or longer than calyx tube; keel beaked, apex laterally and tightly coiled 1.5–2 turns.
98. Hairs not uncinate, straight, loosely tangled, or glandular; floral nodes swollen; pedicels mostly shorter than calyx tube; keel incurved or rarely coiled but not laterally.
→ 99
99. Wing petals oblong, not projected beyond distal bend of keel; hilum elongated 1/2 length of seed or longer.
→ 100
100. Keel petals connate along upper margin without forming a gibbosity or hump proximal to the beak; banner with two prominent appendages on inner face; calyx 5-lobed; inflorescences pseudoracemes with 50–60+ flowers; bracts and bracteoles usually caducous; corollas greenish yellow to purple; introduced, Texas.
100. Keel petals connate along upper margin where a gibbosity or hump forms proximal to the beak; banner without appendages on inner face; calyx with 4 acute-attenuate lobes; inflorescences pseudoracemes, on long peduncle, with 1–12(–22) flowers; secondary bracts and bracteoles persistent, bracteoles conspicuous, equal to or longer than the calyx tube; corollas pink; c, e United States.
99. Wing petals oblong, obovate, ovate, or spatulate, conspicuously projected beyond distal bend of keel; hilum not elongated.
→ 101
101. Petals connate, keel beak hooked, tip of beak hidden by wing petals; corollas salmon-orange, red, or purple-black; one wing petal directed upward to adopt function of banner.
101. Petals distinct, keel beak widely curved, openly hooked, or sigmoidally curved, tip of keel not hidden by wing petals; corollas usually pink to purple, lilac, or white, rarely lavender; wings not directed upward.
→ 102
102. Keel beak gradually twisted into a hook shape, with conspicuous interlocking marginal hairs, distalmost portion of keel beak folded back on itself; legumes short-beaked distally, mostly erect.
102. Keel beak sigmoid-curved or tightly coiled, not folded back distally.
→ 103
103. Keel beak very tightly coiled distally, projected downward rather than laterally; inflorescences with 50 flowers; corollas usually light pink to purple, sometimes white becoming yellowish, wings with purple pattern; introduced, Florida.
103. Keel beak distinctly sigmoid-curved (S-shaped); inflorescences with 2–10 flowers; corollas light to deep purple or deep lilac, wings without purple pattern; Florida.
96. Keel incurved to ca. 90º, not coiled.
→ 104
104. Leaflets evidently stipellate at maturity.
→ 105
105. Fruits loments; inflorescence rachis mostly uncinate-pubescent.
105. Fruits legumes; inflorescence rachis not uncinate-pubescent.
→ 106
106. Stems usually twining or trailing, prostrate, or rarely ascending or erect; calyx tubular; keel and style slightly to strongly incurved; cleistogamous flowers (with reduced corollas and stamens) usually present along with purple or purplish blue chasmogamous flowers; sc, sw United States.
106. Stems ascending, erect, spreading, climbing to prostrate, twining, or procumbent; calyx usually campanulate, rarely 2-lipped or tubular; keel and style incurved or not; cleistogamous flowers usually absent (except Amphicarpaea) and chasmogamous present with corollas yellow to orange, shades of purple, pink, blue, or white; widespread.
→ 107
107. Herbs, subshrubs, or vines, gland-dotted; legumes pubescent; corollas yellow or yellow-orange; seeds 1 or 2; sc, se United States.
107. Herb, shrubs, lianas, or vines, not gland-dotted; legumes glabrous or pubescent; corollas usually violet, pink, blue, lavender, purple, greenish yellow, or white, rarely yellow; seeds 1–25; widespread.
→ 108
108. Stipules persistent and conspicuous.
→ 109
109. Herbs; stems erect, pilose-pubescent; inflorescences short racemes, flowers 5–8; corollas 4.5–7(–10) mm; seeds 2–4.
109. Vines; stems prostrate, twining, or creeping, glabrous or pubescent; inflorescences racemes or pseudoracemes, flowers 1–40; corollas 3.6–30 mm; seeds 1–25.
→ 110
110. Calyx (6–)10–18 mm (including lobes); leaflet blades 8–20(–26) cm, margins usually 3-lobed; vines coarse, climbing or creeping, to 30 m.
110. Calyx 1.3–8 mm; leaflet blades 1.3–5.6(–7.2) cm, margins usually entire, sometimes shallowly deeply incised or lobed; vines prostrate, climbing, or trailing, 1–3 m.
→ 111
111. Bracteoles obsolescent or absent; flowers 6–24, distributed along axis; styles glabrous.
111. Bracteoles calyx-like, usually persistent to anthesis; flowers 1–4 distally congested on long peduncle or rachis much contracted; styles bearded.
→ 112
112. Corollas 25–30 mm; stipules conspicu­ously retrorse-auriculate.
112. Corollas 3.6–15 mm; stipules entire, without retrorse lobe.
→ 113
113. Corollas pale yellow with red­dish veins; bracteoles minute or deciduous; legumes pendulous; Florida.
113. Corollas pink or pinkish, keel beak dark purple; bracteoles persistent; legumes held horizontally or somewhat drooping; widespread.
108. Stipules small, relatively inconspicuous, or obsolescent.
→ 114
114. Corollas 30–65 mm; legumes often with stinging hairs, compressed between seeds; seeds 10–20 mm diam., with conspicuous lateral hilum; se United States.
114. Corollas 6–15(–17) mm; legumes without stinging hairs, not compressed between seeds; seeds 3–13 mm, lateral hilum inconspicuous or absent; c, e, s, se, sw United States.
→ 115
115. Styles glabrous; bracteoles generally caducous; herbs, from a woody taproot.
115. Styles bearded or with 2 lines of hairs; bracteoles present; vines (from a woody base) or herbs.
→ 116
116. Vines (from a woody base); stems twining and climbing; pedicels longer than calyx tube; banners with 1 prominent appendage at base; styles with 2 lines of hairs; bracteoles lanceolate, persistent; legumes 3–5 cm, ventral suture not verrucose; seeds 4–7 mm, black or brown, hilum 2.5–3 mm with aril.
116. Herbs; stems climbing or suberect; pedicels shorter than calyx tube; banners with 2 prominent appendages at base; styles bearded; bracteoles elliptic-rounded, subpersistent; legumes 5–10 cm, ventral suture verrucose; seeds 9–13 mm, white or reddish brown to black, hilum and large white aril extending more than 1/2 seed length.
104. Leaflet stipels absent or deciduous.
→ 117
117. Fruits dehiscent, (1 or)2–numerous-seeded.
→ 118
118. Fruits 6–15 cm; corollas 14–22 mm.
118. Fruits 1–4 cm; corollas 2.5–12(–14) mm.
→ 119
119. Herbs, with pilose hairs; corollas salmon reddish, 5 mm; seeds 3–6.
119. Herbs or vines, without pilose hairs; corollas yellow, orange-yellow, or green-yellow, (4–)6–12(–14) mm; seeds 1 or 2.
117. Fruits indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent, either 1-seeded loments or legumes or several-seeded and -segmented loments.
→ 120
120. Loments with (1 or)2–10 segments, with 1 seed per segment, splitting between indehiscent segments.
120. Loments or legumes with a single segment, 1-seeded, indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent.
→ 121
121. Bodies of fruits included in enlarged calyx except for projecting beak.
121. Bodies of fruits usually not included in calyx, subequal to calyx lobes or exserted above them.
→ 122
122. Loment walls papery; bracteoles present; herbs or shrubs, not gland-dotted.
122. Legume walls thickly leathery; bracteoles absent; herbs, commonly gland-dotted.
76. Leaves mostly 3–96-foliolate (reduced leaves may have only 2 or 3 leaflets).
→ 123
123. Leaves even-pinnate; herbs annual, perennial, or biennial.
→ 124
124. Fruits geocarpic, ± indehiscent; stamens monadelphous, with 8 functional anthers and 2 sterile filaments.
124. Fruits borne above ground, dehiscent or indehiscent; stamens diadelphous, uniform.
→ 125
125. Leaflets all 2 and/or 4 in number.
→ 126
126. Styles terete, with a dense ring of hairs just proximal to stigma; corollas 2–8 mm (8–12 mm in V. ocalensis); leaflets usually both 2 and 4 150.
126. Styles abaxially compressed; corollas 10 mm or more; leaflets all either 2 or 4.
→ 127
127. Leaflets 2, usually with several longitudinal veins in addition to midrib; inflorescence bracts absent.
127. Leaflets 4, without major longitudinal veins in addition to mid­rib; inflorescence bracts present, caducous.
125. Leaflets (0 or)2–30(–96+), if mostly 2 or 4, some leaves with more than 4 leaflets.
→ 128
128. Tendrils absent, rachis slightly or evidently extended as a short bristle or mucronate tendril; legumes bladdery-inflated, terete, or flattened, dehiscent or indehiscent.
→ 129
129. Calyx undulate-truncate or with 5 short lobes 1/4-1/3 as long as tube; stipules narrowly triangular, caducous; legumes terete, elliptic, or 4-angled, flat, inflated, or winged, glabrous; leaflets 10–96+, folding forward to close at night.
129. Calyx 2 lipped with some or all lobes at least 1/2 as long as tube; stipules foliose, persistent; legumes linear, sparsely pubescent; leaflets 2–6, not folding.
128. Tendrils present on some or all leaves; legumes laterally compressed (-turgid), dehiscent.
→ 130
130. Stipules foliaceous, usually larger than leaflets; leaflets 4 or 6; styles folded longitudinally, bearded laterally; stems not winged.
130. Stipules foliaceous or inconspicuous, not larger than leaflets; leaflets 2–30; styles not longitudinally folded, either laterally bearded or with apical tuft of hairs; stems angled or winged.
→ 131
131. Calyx lobes 2–4 times longer than tube; herbs con­spicuously pilose; flowers 10–15 mm, 1–3 at or near apex of axillary racemes; stems angled, not winged.
131. Calyx lobes all or some less than 2 times as long as tube, usually shorter than tube; herbs glabrous or pubescent, rarely pilose; flowers 2–35 mm, mostly axillary; stems angled or winged.
→ 132
132. Styles terete with a distal tuft of hairs (rarely absent) on abaxial side or encircling; stems angled.
132. Styles abaxially compressed, laterally to apically bearded on adaxial side; stems angled and/or winged.
123. Leaves odd-pinnate; herbs, subshrubs, or vines, usually perennial.
→ 133
133. Flowers not papilionaceous, wing and keel petals epistemonous, arising from apex of the stamen tube or laterally from it, or wings and keel absent, corolla then consisting only of banner; herbs or shrubs often conspicuously gland-dotted.
→ 134
134. Corollas consisting only of banner, keel and wings absent; suffrutescent herbs, mostly canescent.
134. Corollas with 5 petals, epistemonous keel and wings either scarcely differen­tiated, ovate-oblong to lanceolate and arising from apex of stamen tube, or differen­tiated and arising laterally from stamen tube; herbs or shrubs, not canescent.
→ 135
135. Ovules 1 and seed 1; inflorescences racemes; leaflet blades with sinuous lines; calyx ribs not anastomosing distally; sw United States.
135. Ovules 2 and seeds 1 or 2; inflorescences spikes; leaflet blades without sinuous lines; calyx ribs anastomosing distally; widespread.
133. Flowers papilionaceous (-subpapilionaceous), wings and keel arising from receptacle, all petals present; herbs, shrubs, vines, or trees, glandular or eglandular.
→ 136
136. Stamens distinct or proximally connate; corollas white, creamy white, yellow, or purple; perennial herbs.
136. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous, usually basally connate; corollas white, yellow, pink to salmon, orange, shades of purple, blue, or red; usually annual or perennial herbs, vines, or subshrubs.
→ 137
137. Subshrubs, armed, glandular nearly throughout; inflorescence rachis with thornlike tip in anthesis; Nevada.
137. Herbs, subshrubs, or vines, usually unarmed (except Peteria armed, stipules and stipels spinescent and bracts spine-tipped), usually eglan­dular; inflorescence rachis without thornlike tip; widespread.
→ 138
138. Fruits loments.
→ 139
139. Inflorescences umbels.
→ 140
140. Leaflets 11–25; corollas white, pink, purple, or bicol­ored; perennial herbs; introduced, widespread.
140. Leaflets 5–7; corollas yellow; shrubby herbs; introduced, California.
139. Inflorescences fascicles, racemes, panicles, spikes, or heads, rarely solitary flowers.
→ 141
141. Flowers sub-papilionaceous, wings much smaller than other petals; loments indehiscent, coarsely reticulate, winged, prickly edged; seed 1.
141. Flowers papilionaceous, wings not significantly smaller than other petals; loments dehiscent or indehiscent, not coarsely reticulate, not or moderately winged, not prickly edged (surfaces sometimes prickly in Hedysarum boreale); seeds 1–9.
→ 142
142. Vines, twining; distal segment of loment sterile, flat, winglike (except N. wislizeni); sw United States.
142. Herbs, not twining; distal segment of loment not produced into a wing; se United States or widespread.
→ 143
143. Loments geocarpic, ± indehiscent; stamens monadelphous, with 8 functional anthers and 2 sterile filaments.
143. Loments not geocarpic, dehiscent or indehiscent; stamens monadelphous or diadelphous, 10, all functional.
→ 144
144. Plants annual; inflorescences umbellate heads; loment segments oblong or elliptic-oblong; flowers with inconspicuous keel.
144. Plants annual or perennial; inflorescences racemes (sometimes subcapitate) or panicles, rarely solitary flowers; loment segments flattened, subglobose, subquadrate, or cylindric; flowers with conspicuous or inconspicuous keel.
→ 145
145. Inflorescences terminal and axillary panicles; stipules petiolate.
145. Inflorescences axillary racemes; stipules sessile.
→ 146
146. Stipules peltate; inflorescences with 1–5(–15) flowers; keel acute, included, bent, or curved; corollas yellowish; stems often with glan­dular hairs; se, sw United States to Missouri.
146. Stipules ± connate-sheathing, lanceolate; inflorescences with 5–60 flowers; keel broadly truncate, much exceeding other petals; corollas usually pink, reddish, or purple, or yellow, rarely white; stems without glandular hairs; w, ne United States, Canada.
138. Fruits legumes.
→ 147
147. Leaflet margins conspicuously dentate; legumes inflated and densely glandular- pubescent; seeds 1 or 2, ovoid-globular.
147. Leaflet margins entire; legumes inflated or not, glabrous or pubescent, not glandular; seeds 1–77(–84), globose to cuboid, oblong, ovoid, obovoid, reniform, ellipsoid, or terete.
→ 148
148. Inflorescences headlike racemes or umbels; flowers subtended by a reduced lobed bract (prophyll); corollas usually yellow; terminal leaflet usually considerably longer than laterals; legumes included in calyx; seeds 1 or 2, globose to ovoid.
148. Inflorescences racemes or pseudoracemes or flowers solitary, rarely umbellate or fasciculate; flowers without prophylls; corollas purple to blue, pink, reddish, maroon, orange, yellow, cream, or white; terminal leaflets usually not considerably longer than laterals; legumes included in calyx or not; seeds 1–77(–84), globose to cuboid, oblong, ovoid, obovoid, reniform, ellipsoid, or terete.
→ 149
149. Leaflets 3(or 5); vines, twining; corollas usually purple to pink-purple or bluish, rarely magenta; keel slightly incurved; sw United States.
149. Leaflets 1–45(–70); herbs, rarely vines or shrubs, not twining (except Apios); corollas purple to blue, pink, reddish, maroon, orange, yellow, cream, or white; keel straight to suberect (except incurved in Apios); widespread.
→ 150
150. Banners 40–55 mm, much larger than other petals and arising from lower side of resupinate flower; leaflets 5 or 7, stipellate; stipules persistent, striate; inflorescences usually bearing a single resupinate flower.
150. Banners 4–26 mm, nearly equal to or only moderately larger than other petals; leaflets 1–45(–70), stipellate or not; stipules persistent or deciduous, not striate; inflorescences without resupinate flowers.
→ 151
151. Inflorescences umbels or solitary flowers; legumes narrowly oblong or linear, subterete to quadrate; leaflets 3–25.
→ 152
152. Leaflets 3–19, proximal pair not in stipular position; stipules leafy and scarious; corollas yellow, cream, white, pink, purple, red, or lurid; w North America.
152. Leaflets 5, proximal pair in stipular position, others palmately arranged; stipules glandlike; corollas yellow, usually marked with red; introduced, widespread.
151. Inflorescences racemes or pseudoracemes; legumes linear to oblong, cylindric, ellipsoid, ovoid, lanceoloid, or globose; leaflets 1–45(–70).
→ 153
153. Stipules deeply sagittate-lobed, persistent; bracts subulate, persistent after anthesis; stamens monadelphous; legumes linear-cylindric, torulose.
153. Stipules not sagittate, not lobed, persistent or deciduous; bracts when present usually deltate, lanceolate, linear, or setaceous, rarely subulate, persistent or caducous; stamens monadelphous or diadelphous; legumes linear to oblong, cylindric, ellip­soid, ovoid, lanceoloid, or globose, not torulose.
→ 154
154. Leaf blades glandular-punctate; legumes glabrous or with hooked setae; corollas yellow-white, purple-tinged, or bluish.
154. Leaf blades not glandular-punctate; legumes glabrous or pubescent, without hooked setae; corollas white, cream, yellow, pink, blue to purple, maroon, pale green, violet, lavender, or lilac.
→ 155
155. Hairs dolabriform (2-branched from middle) in part or throughout; stip­ules free, not connate; corollas pink to red, salmon to maroon, orange-mauve to orange, or greenish yellow to ochroleucous, rarely white; anthers apiculate and initially gland-tipped.
155. Hairs basifixed; stipules adnate to petiole or free; corollas white, cream, yellow, pink, blue to purple, maroon, pale green, violet, lavender, or lilac; anthers not apiculate.
→ 156
156. Herbs or vines prostrate, twining, or clambering.
→ 157
157. Inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed; leaflets (3 or)5–11(or 13), with numerous (8–15) parallel, straight, lateral veins extending to margins.
157. Inflorescences axillary; leaflets 1–7(or 9), without numerous parallel, lateral veins.
→ 158
158. Keels carinate or moderately incurved; styles filiform, not coiled; inflorescences few-flowered at apex of peduncle or reduced to 1 or 2 flowers in leaf axils; leaflet blades 20–55 mm; rhizomes not tuber-bearing.
158. Keels incurved to strongly incurved; styles spirally coiled; inflorescences many-flowered, nodose pseudo­racemes, often flowering 1/2+ axis length; leaflet blades 47–100 mm; rhizomes tuber-bearing.
156. Herbs usually erect, ascending, prostrate, or decumbent, rarely scandent, not vining.
→ 159
159. Inflorescences pseudoracemes, usually leaf-opposed, with (1 or)2–45 flowers; legumes laterally compressed, flat; styles bearded (except T. angustissima).
159. Inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes; legumes usually bladdery-inflated (except Peteria laterally compressed); styles glabrous, sometimes bearded distally.
→ 160
160. Stipules spinescent; inflorescences leaf-opposed racemes, appearing terminal; styles slightly bearded; seeds cylindric; w, sc United States.
160. Stipules not spinescent; inflorescences racemes, not leaf-opposed, axillary or terminal; styles glabrous or bearded; seeds reniform; widespread.
→ 161
161. Plants with both conspicuously beaked (porrect) keel tips and scapose racemes, often spikelike; plants usually cespitose; styles glabrous.
161. Plants not with both beaked keels and scapose racemes; styles bearded or glabrous.
→ 162
162. Styles glabrous; legumes dehiscent throughout or apically, compressed to bladdery-inflated; corollas violet, blue-purple, purple, red-purple, pink-purple, pink, lilac, reddish, whitish, yellowish, cream, ochroleucous, or greenish; plants with or without creeping rhizomes; widespread, especially in w United States.
162. Styles distally bearded; legumes indehiscent, bladdery-inflated; corollas orange-red or brick-red; plants without creeping rhizomes; introduced, w, c North America.
Source FNA vol. 11. FNA vol. 11.
Parent taxa Fabaceae > subfam. Faboideae > Crotalaria
Sibling taxa
C. avonensis, C. incana, C. juncea, C. lanceolata, C. ochroleuca, C. pumila, C. purshii, C. retusa, C. rotundifolia, C. sagittalis, C. spectabilis, C. trichotoma, C. verrucosa, C. virgulata
Subordinate taxa
C. pallida var. obovata
Abrus, Acmispon, Aeschynomene, Alhagi, Alysicarpus, Amorpha, Amphicarpaea, Ancistrotropis, Andira, Anthyllis, Apios, Arachis, Aspalthium, Astragalus, Baptisia, Brongniartia, Cajanus, Canavalia, Caragana, Centrosema, Chapmannia, Cicer, Cladrastis, Clitoria, Cologania, Colutea, Coronilla, Coursetia, Crotalaria, Cytisus, Dalbergia, Dalea, Dermatophyllum, Desmodium, Diphysa, Dipogon, Errazurizia, Erythrina, Eysenhardtia, Galactia, Galega, Genista, Genistidium, Gliricidia, Glycine, Glycyrrhiza, Halimodendron, Hedysarum, Hoita, Hosackia, Hylodesmum, Indigofera, Kummerowia, Lablab, Laburnum, Lackeya, Ladeania, Lathyrus, Lens, Leptospron, Lespedeza, Lotus, Lupinus, Maackia, Macroptilium, Marina, Medicago, Melilotus, Millettia, Mucuna, Nissolia, Olneya, Onobrychis, Ononis, Orbexilum, Ornithopus, Oxyrhynchus, Oxytropis, Pachyrhizus, Parryella, Pediomelum, Peteria, Phaseolus, Pickeringia, Piscidia, Pisum, Psorothamnus, Pueraria, Retama, Rhynchosia, Robinia, Rupertia, Securigera, Sesbania, Sigmoidotropis, Sophora, Spartium, Sphaerophysa, Sphinctospermum, Strophostyles, Stylosanthes, Styphnolobium, Tephrosia, Thermopsis, Trifolium, Trigonella, Ulex, Vicia, Vigna, Wisteria, Zornia
Synonyms Papilionoideae de
Name authority Aiton: Hort. Kew. 3: 20. (1789) Rudd: Rhodora 70: 496. (1968)
Web links