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alaskan bunchberry, western bunchberry, western cordilleran bunchberry

blood-twig dogwood

Habit Shrubs, to 3 m, flowering at 1 m; rhizomes absent.

erect, green, 6–22 cm, appressed-hairy;

nodes 4–6, internodes progressively longer distally;

branches only at distalmost node, much shorter than distal internodes so stems appear unbranched.


bark maroon to reddish brown, not corky, loosely verrucose;

branchlets reddish brown to yellow to maroon, appressed-hairy when young;

lenticels protruding on 2d year branches;

pith white.


at proximal 2–4 nodes nonchlorophyllous, opposite, ± scalelike, caducous (rarely chlorophyllous at 3d node from apex but much smaller than more distal leaves), at 2d node from apex nonchlorophyllous proximally, chlorophyllous distally, opposite, well developed, persistent, at distalmost node chlorophyllous, appearing to be in whorl of 6, well developed, persistent;

distalmost leaves much bigger than those at 2 more proximal nodes;

petiole 0–3.4 mm;

blade ovate to elliptic, 3.5–8 × 0.9–4 cm, apex acute or short acuminate, abaxial surface pale green, hairs sparsely appressed-hairy, adaxial surface green, appressed-hairy;

secondary veins 3 per side, all arising from proximal 1/2.

petiole 5–38 mm;

blade elliptic to narrowly ovate, 4–17 × 1.5–12 cm, base attenuate, apex acuminate, abaxial surface white, hairs erect and appressed, tufts of erect hairs present in axils of secondary veins, adaxial surface green, hairs erect;

secondary veins 3–5 per side, most arising from proximal 1/2.



peduncle 13–30 mm;

primary branches 0–2 mm;

bracts greenish white or white, often red-tipped, unequal, 2 ovate, 21–30 × 12–13 mm, 2 suborbiculate, 17–1.9 × 13–16 mm, apex acuminate.

flat-topped, 3–6 cm diam., peduncle 20–40 mm;

branches and pedicels green, turning maroon in fruit.


0.4–1.6 mm, sparsely appressed-hairy or glabrous.


hypanthium cream to mottled purple, 1.2–2 mm, densely appressed-hairy;

sepals mottled purple and cream, 0.1–0.4 mm, apex rounded or acute, thick, sparsely hairy on margin, densely glandular;

petals cream proximally, purple distally, 1.5–1.8 mm, apical awn 0.4–0.6 mm;

nectary dark purple or black.

hypanthium densely appressed-hairy;

sepals 0.2–0.6 mm;

petals white, 2.5–4 mm.


10–20 per inflorescence, red, globose, 6–8 mm;

stone globose or subglobose, 2.7–3.4 × 2.1–3.4 mm, longitudinally grooved, apex slightly pointed.

purple-black, globose or subglobose, 6–10 mm diam.;

stone globose, 4–6 mm diam., smooth or slightly grooved, apex rounded.


= 44.

= 22.

Cornus unalaschkensis

Cornus sanguinea

Phenology Flowering May–Aug; fruiting Aug–Oct. Flowering Apr–Jun; fruiting Aug–Sep.
Habitat Maritime copse or heath, maritime coniferous forests and bog woodlands, moist broadleaf or coniferous forests. Disturbed areas.
Elevation 0–3000 m. (0–9800 ft.) 0–1000 m. (0–3300 ft.)
from FNA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
MA; PA; WA; Europe; w Asia [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]

Cornus sanguinea is frequently planted across North America and occasionally has become naturalized.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 12, p. 448. FNA vol. 12, p. 455.
Parent taxa Cornaceae > Cornus > subg. Arctocrania Cornaceae > Cornus > subg. Thelycrania
Sibling taxa
C. alternifolia, C. amomum, C. asperifolia, C. canadensis, C. drummondii, C. florida, C. foemina, C. glabrata, C. kousa, C. mas, C. nuttallii, C. obliqua, C. occidentalis, C. racemosa, C. rugosa, C. sanguinea, C. sericea, C. sessilis, C. suecica
C. alternifolia, C. amomum, C. asperifolia, C. canadensis, C. drummondii, C. florida, C. foemina, C. glabrata, C. kousa, C. mas, C. nuttallii, C. obliqua, C. occidentalis, C. racemosa, C. rugosa, C. sericea, C. sessilis, C. suecica, C. unalaschkensis
Synonyms Arctocrania unalaschkensis, Chamaepericlymenum unalaschkense, Cornella unalaschkensis, Swida unalaschkensis Swida sanguinea
Name authority Ledebour: Fl. Ross. 2: 378. (1844) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 117. (1753)
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