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alaskan bunchberry, western bunchberry, western cordilleran bunchberry

eastern roughleaf dogwood, toughleaf dogwood

Habit Shrubs, to 4 m, flowering at 1.5 m; rhizomes present.

erect, green, 6–22 cm, appressed-hairy;

nodes 4–6, internodes progressively longer distally;

branches only at distalmost node, much shorter than distal internodes so stems appear unbranched.

solitary, 1–5 dm apart;

bark gray, splitting into small plates;

branchlets green to bronze, often tinged with maroon, densely pubescent;

lenticels inconspicuous on new growth, periderm around them swelling to form broad raised areas on 2d year branches;

pith white.


at proximal 2–4 nodes nonchlorophyllous, opposite, ± scalelike, caducous (rarely chlorophyllous at 3d node from apex but much smaller than more distal leaves), at 2d node from apex nonchlorophyllous proximally, chlorophyllous distally, opposite, well developed, persistent, at distalmost node chlorophyllous, appearing to be in whorl of 6, well developed, persistent;

distalmost leaves much bigger than those at 2 more proximal nodes;

petiole 0–3.4 mm;

blade ovate to elliptic, 3.5–8 × 0.9–4 cm, apex acute or short acuminate, abaxial surface pale green, hairs sparsely appressed-hairy, adaxial surface green, appressed-hairy;

secondary veins 3 per side, all arising from proximal 1/2.

petiole 2–7 mm;

blade elliptic to ovate, 3–8.5 × 2–4 cm, base usually rounded, sometimes cuneate, apex acute, abaxial surface pale green, hairs erect, curling, white, adaxial surface dark green, hairs spreading to erect, occasionally 1 arm appressed;

secondary veins 3–4 per side, evenly spaced.



peduncle 13–30 mm;

primary branches 0–2 mm;

bracts greenish white or white, often red-tipped, unequal, 2 ovate, 21–30 × 12–13 mm, 2 suborbiculate, 17–1.9 × 13–16 mm, apex acuminate.

pyramidal, 2–5 cm diam., peduncle 15–45 mm;

branches and pedicels yellow-green, turning maroon in fruit.


0.4–1.6 mm, sparsely appressed-hairy or glabrous.


hypanthium cream to mottled purple, 1.2–2 mm, densely appressed-hairy;

sepals mottled purple and cream, 0.1–0.4 mm, apex rounded or acute, thick, sparsely hairy on margin, densely glandular;

petals cream proximally, purple distally, 1.5–1.8 mm, apical awn 0.4–0.6 mm;

nectary dark purple or black.

hypanthium densely appressed-hairy;

sepals 0.2–0.8 mm;

petals white, 1.7–2.4 mm.


10–20 per inflorescence, red, globose, 6–8 mm;

stone globose or subglobose, 2.7–3.4 × 2.1–3.4 mm, longitudinally grooved, apex slightly pointed.

blue to whitish blue, globose, 4–7 mm diam.;

stone globose, 3–5 mm diam., smooth or slightly grooved, apex rounded.


= 44.

Cornus unalaschkensis

Cornus asperifolia

Phenology Flowering May–Aug; fruiting Aug–Oct. Flowering Apr–Jun; fruiting Aug–Sep.
Habitat Maritime copse or heath, maritime coniferous forests and bog woodlands, moist broadleaf or coniferous forests. Marl or limestone outcrops, hammocks, swamp margins.
Elevation 0–3000 m. (0–9800 ft.) 0–100 m. (0–300 ft.)
from FNA
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from FNA
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G. V. Nash (1896b) collected Cornus asperifolia at River Junction, Florida; based on the conflicting reports of fruit colors given by A. W. Chapman (1860) and J. M. Coulter and W. H. Evans (1890) for the two rough-leaved dogwoods (C. asperifolia and C. drummondii), Nash decided to name the rough-leaved dogwood of Florida with blue fruit as C. microcarpa. However, the description by Michaux, even without a reference to fruit color, cannot apply to C. drummondii, because the locality is given as “Carolinae inferioris,” and C. drummondii does not occur in South Carolina.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 12, p. 448. FNA vol. 12, p. 455.
Parent taxa Cornaceae > Cornus > subg. Arctocrania Cornaceae > Cornus > subg. Thelycrania
Sibling taxa
C. alternifolia, C. amomum, C. asperifolia, C. canadensis, C. drummondii, C. florida, C. foemina, C. glabrata, C. kousa, C. mas, C. nuttallii, C. obliqua, C. occidentalis, C. racemosa, C. rugosa, C. sanguinea, C. sericea, C. sessilis, C. suecica
C. alternifolia, C. amomum, C. canadensis, C. drummondii, C. florida, C. foemina, C. glabrata, C. kousa, C. mas, C. nuttallii, C. obliqua, C. occidentalis, C. racemosa, C. rugosa, C. sanguinea, C. sericea, C. sessilis, C. suecica, C. unalaschkensis
Synonyms Arctocrania unalaschkensis, Chamaepericlymenum unalaschkense, Cornella unalaschkensis, Swida unalaschkensis C. excelsa var. beyrichiana, C. foemina subsp. microcarpa, C. microcarpa, C. sericea var. asperifolia, C. stricta var. asperifolia, Swida asperifolia, S. microcarpa
Name authority Ledebour: Fl. Ross. 2: 378. (1844) Michaux: Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 93. (1803)
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