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African mustard, Asian mustard, mustard, sahara mustard

elongated mustard

Habit Annuals; densely hirsute proximally, glabrescent distally. Biennials or perennials; (short-lived, often woody basally); glabrous or hirsute.

usually branched basally, (widely) branched distally, (1–)3–7(–10) dm.

(several from base), branched basally, 5–10 dm, (usually glabrous, rarely sparsely hirsute).

Basal leaves

(rosettes persistent);

petiole (broad) 2–10 cm;

blade lyrate to pinnatisect, 2–30 cm × 10–50(–100) mm, (margins serrate-dentate), 4–10 lobes each side.

blade (usually bright green), obovate to elliptic (not lobed), (3–)5–20(–30) cm × (5–)10–35(–60) mm, (base cuneate), margins subentire to dentate, (surfaces glabrous or often with trichomes minute, tubercled-based, curved, coarse).

Cauline leaves


blade (reduced in size distally, distalmost bractlike), base tapered, not auriculate or amplexicaul.

(distal) shortly petiolate;

blade (oblong or lanceolate, to 10 cm) base not auriculate or amplexicaul.


not paniculately branched.

paniculately branched.


sepals 5–4.5 × 1–1.5 mm;

petals pale yellow, fading or, sometimes, white, oblanceolate, 4–7 × 1.5–2(–2.5) mm, claw 1–3 mm, apex rounded;

filaments 2.5–4 mm;

anthers 1–1.3 mm;

gynophore to 1 mm.

sepals 3–4(–4.5) × 1–1.5 mm;

petals bright yellow to orange-yellow, obovate, (5–)7–10 × 2.5–3.5(–4) mm, claw 2.5–4 mm, apex rounded;

filaments 3.5–4.5 mm;

anthers 1–1.5 mm;

gynophore 1.5–4(–5) mm in fruit.

Fruiting pedicels

widely spreading, 8–15 mm.

spreading to divaricately ascending, (6–)8–18 mm.


(shortly stipitate); widely spreading to ascending (not appressed to rachis), torulose, cylindric, 3–7 cm × 2–4(–5) mm;

valvular segment with 6–12(–15) seeds per locule, 2.2–5 cm, terminal segment 1(–3)-seeded, (cylindric, stout), 10–20 mm.

(stipitate), spreading to ascending (not appressed to rachis), torulose, terete, (1.5–)2–4(–4.8) cm × (1–)1.5–2 mm;

valvular segment with (2–)5–11(–13) seeds per locule, (1.2–)1.6–4(–4.5) cm, terminal segment seedless, 0.5–2.5(–3) mm.


light reddish brown or black, 1–1.2 mm diam.;

seed coat prominently reticulate, mucilaginous when wetted.

grey to brown, 1–1.6 mm diam.;

seed coat reticulate, mucilaginous when wetted.


= 20.

= 22.

Brassica tournefortii

Brassica elongata

Phenology Flowering Feb–Apr. Flowering Jun–Jul.
Habitat Roadsides, waste places, old fields, washes, open desert areas intermixed with desert shrubs Roadsides, disturbed ground, adjacent open juniper and sagebrush desert areas
Elevation 0-800 m (0-2600 ft) 0-2700 m (0-8900 ft)
from FNA
AZ; CA; NV; TX; UT; Europe; Asia; Africa [Introduced in North America; introduced also in nw Mexico, Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
NV; OR; WA; Europe; Asia; n Africa [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Australia]
[BONAP county map]

Brassica tournefortii was first reported from California (Imperial, Riverside, and western San Bernardino counties) by W. L. Jepson ([1923–1925]), with the first collections appearing from southern California in 1941 (R. C. Rollins and I. A. Al-Shehbaz 1986), Arizona in 1959 (T. H. Kearney and R. H. Peebles 1960), Nevada in 1977, and Texas in 1978 (D. E. Lemke and R. D. Worthington 1991).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

The earliest North American collections of Brassica elongata were from ballast at Linnton, near Portland, Oregon, in 1911, and from a garden in Bingen, Klickitat County, Washington, in 1915. The species does not appear to have persisted at, or spread from, either location (R. C. Rollins and I. A. Al-Shehbaz 1986). It was next collected in 1968 from east-central Nevada, where it is now well-established in Eureka and White Pine counties, and just into Lander County, and spreading rapidly along both roadsides and adjacent high desert (Rollins 1980; Rollins and Al-Shehbaz; Rollins 1993). The semiarid region of North America appears to be a well-suited habitat for B. elongata and the species appears destined to become a permanent part of the flora of the Intermountain Basin (Rollins and Al-Shehbaz).

According to R. C. Rollins (1980), the Nevada plants belong to subsp. integrifolia (Boissier) Breistroffer, but the species is so variable that dividing it into infraspecific taxa is not practical.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 7, p. 424. FNA vol. 7, p. 420.
Parent taxa Brassicaceae > tribe Brassiceae > Brassica Brassicaceae > tribe Brassiceae > Brassica
Sibling taxa
B. elongata, B. fruticulosa, B. juncea, B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa
B. fruticulosa, B. juncea, B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa, B. tournefortii
Name authority Gouan: Ill. Observ. Bot., 44, plate 20A. (1773) Ehrhart: Beitr. Naturk. 7: 159. (1792)
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