The green links below add additional plants to the comparison table. Blue links lead to other Web sites.
enable glossary links

bird's rape, bird-rape, canola, common mustard, field-mustard, rape, rapeseed, turnip, turnip-rape, wild-rape, wild-turnip

elongated mustard

Habit Annuals or biennials; (roots fleshy or slender); (green to slightly glaucous), glabrous or sparsely hairy. Biennials or perennials; (short-lived, often woody basally); glabrous or hirsute.

unbranched or branched distally, 3–10 dm.

(several from base), branched basally, 5–10 dm, (usually glabrous, rarely sparsely hirsute).

Basal leaves

petiole (winged), (1–)2–10(–17) cm;

blade ± lyrate-pinnatifid to pinnate to pinnatisect, (5–)10–40(–60) cm × 30–100(–200) mm, (margins sinuate-dentate, sometimes ciliate), lobes 2–4(–6) each side, (terminal lobe oblong-obovate, obtuse, large, blade surfaces usually setose).

blade (usually bright green), obovate to elliptic (not lobed), (3–)5–20(–30) cm × (5–)10–35(–60) mm, (base cuneate), margins subentire to dentate, (surfaces glabrous or often with trichomes minute, tubercled-based, curved, coarse).

Cauline leaves

(middle and distal) sessile;

base auriculate to amplexicaul, (margins subentire).

(distal) shortly petiolate;

blade (oblong or lanceolate, to 10 cm) base not auriculate or amplexicaul.


not paniculately branched, (with open flowers overtopping or equal to buds).

paniculately branched.


sepals (3–)4–6.5(–8) × 1.5–2 mm;

petals deep yellow to yellow, obovate, 6–11(–13) × (2.5–)3–6(–7) mm, claw 3–7 mm, apex rounded;

filaments 4–6(–7) mm;

anthers 1.5–2 mm.

sepals 3–4(–4.5) × 1–1.5 mm;

petals bright yellow to orange-yellow, obovate, (5–)7–10 × 2.5–3.5(–4) mm, claw 2.5–4 mm, apex rounded;

filaments 3.5–4.5 mm;

anthers 1–1.5 mm;

gynophore 1.5–4(–5) mm in fruit.

Fruiting pedicels

ascending to spreading, (5–)10–25(–30) mm.

spreading to divaricately ascending, (6–)8–18 mm.


ascending to somewhat spreading, torulose, terete, (2–)3–8(–11) cm × 2–4(–5) mm;

valvular segment with 8–15 seeds per locule, (1.3–)2–5(–7.5) cm, terminal segment seedless, 8–22 mm.

(stipitate), spreading to ascending (not appressed to rachis), torulose, terete, (1.5–)2–4(–4.8) cm × (1–)1.5–2 mm;

valvular segment with (2–)5–11(–13) seeds per locule, (1.2–)1.6–4(–4.5) cm, terminal segment seedless, 0.5–2.5(–3) mm.


black, brown, or reddish, 1.1–2 mm diam.;

seed coat very finely reticulate-lightly alveolate, not mucilaginous when wetted.

grey to brown, 1–1.6 mm diam.;

seed coat reticulate, mucilaginous when wetted.


= 20.

= 22.

Brassica rapa

Brassica elongata

Phenology Flowering Apr–Sep. Flowering Jun–Jul.
Habitat Roadsides, disturbed areas and waste places, cultivated fields, grain fields, orchards, gardens Roadsides, disturbed ground, adjacent open juniper and sagebrush desert areas
Elevation 0-1500 m [0-4900 ft] 0-2700 m [0-8900 ft]
from FNA
AK; AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; WY; AB; BC; MB; NB; NL; NS; NT; ON; PE; QC; SK; YT; Europe; Asia; Africa [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Atlantic Islands, Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
NV; OR; WA; Europe; Asia; n Africa [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Australia]
[BONAP county map]

Brassica rapa is widely cultivated as an oil crop and vegetable, and cultivars, especially in Asia, have been recognized as species, subspecies, and varieties. The most important crops include: rapeseed or canola, turnip (subsp. rapa), Chinese mustard or pakchoi [subsp. chinensis (Linnaeus) Hanelt], and Chinese cabbage or petsai [subsp. pekinensis (Loureiro) Hanelt]. The species is also a widespread naturalized weed [subsp. sylvestris (Linnaeus) Janchen] throughout temperate North America and elsewhere. It is self-incompatible. Hybridization in the field in Europe has been described between B. napus and B. rapa (R. B. Jørgensen and B. Andersen 1994).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

The earliest North American collections of Brassica elongata were from ballast at Linnton, near Portland, Oregon, in 1911, and from a garden in Bingen, Klickitat County, Washington, in 1915. The species does not appear to have persisted at, or spread from, either location (R. C. Rollins and I. A. Al-Shehbaz 1986). It was next collected in 1968 from east-central Nevada, where it is now well-established in Eureka and White Pine counties, and just into Lander County, and spreading rapidly along both roadsides and adjacent high desert (Rollins 1980; Rollins and Al-Shehbaz; Rollins 1993). The semiarid region of North America appears to be a well-suited habitat for B. elongata and the species appears destined to become a permanent part of the flora of the Intermountain Basin (Rollins and Al-Shehbaz).

According to R. C. Rollins (1980), the Nevada plants belong to subsp. integrifolia (Boissier) Breistroffer, but the species is so variable that dividing it into infraspecific taxa is not practical.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 7, p. 423. FNA vol. 7, p. 420.
Parent taxa Brassicaceae > tribe Brassiceae > Brassica Brassicaceae > tribe Brassiceae > Brassica
Sibling taxa
B. elongata, B. fruticulosa, B. juncea, B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. tournefortii
B. fruticulosa, B. juncea, B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa, B. tournefortii
Synonyms B. campestris, B. campestris var. oleifera, B. chinensis, B. pekinensis, B. rapa subsp. chinensis, B. rapa subsp. pekinensis, Sinapis pekinensis
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 666. (1753) Ehrhart: Beitr. Naturk. 7: 159. (1792)
Web links