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bouleau pleureur, European birch, European weeping birch, European white birch, silver birch, weeping birch

arctic dwarf birch, bog birch, bouleau nain, dwarf birch

Habit Trees, to 25 m; trunks usually several, crowns spreading. Shrubs, sprawling, creeping, or upright, to 1 m.
Bark

of mature trunks and branches creamy to silvery white, smooth, exfoliating as long strands;

lenticels dark, horizontally expanded.

gray to dark brown, smooth, close;

lenticels inconspicuous, unexpanded.

Branches

pendulous;

twigs glabrous, usually dotted with small resinous glands.

Twigs

without taste and odor of wintergreen, glabrous to sparsely or moderately pubescent, with or without heavy resinous coating, sometimes covered with warty resinous glands.

Leaf

blade broadly ovate to rhombic with 5–18 pairs of lateral veins, 3–7 × 2.5–5 cm, base cuneate, rarely truncate, margins coarsely and sharply doubly serrate, apex acuminate;

surfaces abaxially glabrous to sparsely pubescent, covered with minute, resinous glands.

blade broadly orbiculate or obovate-orbiculate to reniform, with 2–6 pairs of lateral veins, often broader than long, base rounded to nearly cordate, margins deeply crenate, apex rounded;

surfaces abaxially glabrous to sparsely or moderately pubescent.

Infructescences

erect to nearly pendulous, cylindric, 2–3.5 × 0.6–1 cm, shattering with fruits in fall;

scales adaxially sparsely pubescent, lobes diverging at middle, central lobe obtuse, much shorter than lateral lobes, lateral lobes broad, rounded, extended.

erect, nearly cylindric, shattering with fruits in fall.

Samaras

with wings much broader than body, broadest near center, extended beyond body apically.

with wings much narrower than body, broadest near center, not extended beyond body apically.

Staminate

and pistillate catkins produced season before flowering but retained in buds during winter, expanding along with new growth in spring.

2n

= 28, 56.

Betula pendula

Betula nana

Phenology Flowering late spring.
Habitat Abandoned plantings, roadsides, edges of bogs, waste places
Elevation 0–350 m (0–1100 ft)
Distribution
from FNA
CT; MA; NH; NY; OH; PA; VT; WA; BC; MB; ON; Europe; Asia
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AK; AB; BC; MB; NT; SK; YT; Subarctic and arctic of North America; Europe; and Asia
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

The Eurasian weeping birch (Betula pendula) is extensively cultivated throughout the temperate range of the flora, and it has been known to persist or to become locally naturalized in several areas, particularly in the Northeast. In vegetative features it resembles B. populifolia Marshall, to which it is closely allied; it can easily be distinguished from the latter by its peeling bark, as well as by its mostly pubescent leaves with somewhat shorter, acuminate apices.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Subspecies 3 (2 in the flora).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Young twigs pubescent, not covered with conspicuous resinous layer; subarctic and arctic ne Canada, s Greenland.
subsp. nana
1. Young twigs glabrous or only puberulent, covered with thick resinous coating; Alaska, Yukon, n Asia.
subsp. exilis
Source FNA vol. 3. FNA vol. 3.
Parent taxa Betulaceae > subfam. Betuloideae > Betula Betulaceae > subfam. Betuloideae > Betula
Sibling taxa
B. alleghaniensis, B. cordifolia, B. glandulosa, B. kenaica, B. lenta, B. michauxii, B. minor, B. murrayana, B. nana, B. neoalaskana, B. nigra, B. occidentalis, B. papyrifera, B. populifolia, B. pubescens, B. pumila, B. uber
B. alleghaniensis, B. cordifolia, B. glandulosa, B. kenaica, B. lenta, B. michauxii, B. minor, B. murrayana, B. neoalaskana, B. nigra, B. occidentalis, B. papyrifera, B. pendula, B. populifolia, B. pubescens, B. pumila, B. uber
Subordinate taxa
B. nana subsp. exilis, B. nana subsp. nana
Synonyms B. verrucosa
Name authority Roth: Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 405. (1788) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 983. (1753)
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