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American agave, American century plant, centuryplant, maguey americano

Habit Plants acaulescent or short-stemmed, commonly suckering, trunks less than 2 m; rosettes not cespitose, 10–20 × 20–37 dm.
Leaves

erect, spreading to ascending, occasionally reflexed, 80–200 × 15–25 cm;

blade light green to green or glaucous-gray, sometimes variegated or cross-zoned, narrowly to broadly lanceolate, smooth, rigid;

margins nearly straight or undulate to crenate, armed, teeth single, 5–10 mm, 1–4 cm apart;

apical spine dark brown to grayish, conical or subulate, 2–6 cm.

Scape

5–9 m.

Inflorescences

paniculate, not bulbiferous;

bracts persistent, triangular, 5–15 cm;

lateral branches 15–35, horizontal to slightly ascending, comprising distal 1/3–1/2 of inflorescence, longer than 10 cm.

Flowers

erect, 7–10.5 cm;

perianth yellow, tube funnelform to cylindric, 8–20 × 12–20 mm, limb lobes erect, subequal, 20–35 mm;

stamens long-exserted;

filaments inserted above mid perianth tube, erect, yellow, 6–9 cm;

anthers yellow, 25–35 mm;

ovary 3–4.5 cm, neck constricted, 3–6(–8) mm.

Capsules

short-pedicellate, oblong, 3.5–8 cm, apex beaked.

Seeds

6–8 mm.

Agave americana

Discussion

Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora).

Various chromosome numbers have been reported for Agave americana under a variety of names, typically without regard to the plant’s origin or its precise taxonomic disposition. Nonetheless, the species is most certainly a polyploid complex based on x = 30, with reports of n = 30 and 2n = 60, 120, and 180 documented by S. D. McKelvey and K. Sax (1933), H. Matsuura and T. Sutô (1935), E. B. Granick (1944), A. K. Sharma and U. C. Bhattacharyya (1962), M. S. Cave (1964), S. Banerjee and A. K. Sharma (1987), Huang S. F. et al. (1989) and B. Vijayavalli and P. M. Mathew (1990). Various dysploids have also been reported (A. F. Dyer et al. 1970; J. L. Strother and G. L. Nesom 1997). See H. S. Gentry (1982) for details.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Distribution
from USDA
sw United States; Mexico
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Parent taxa Agavaceae > Agave
Sibling taxa
A. asperrima, A. chrysantha, A. decipiens, A. delamateri, A. deserti, A. desmettiana, A. gracilipes, A. havardiana, A. lechuguilla, A. mckelveyana, A. murpheyi, A. neglecta, A. palmeri, A. parryi, A. parviflora, A. phillipsiana, A. schottii, A. shawii, A. sisalana, A. toumeyana, A. univittata, A. utahensis, A. weberi, A. ×ajoensis, A. ×arizonica, A. ×glomeruliflora
Subordinate taxa
A. americana subsp. americana, A. americana subsp. protamericana
Key
1.Leaves 80–135 cm, 4–6 times longer than wide; capsules 3.5–4 cm.A. americana subsp. protamericana
1.Leaves 100–200 cm, 6–10 times longer than wide; capsules 4–8 cm.A. americana subsp. americana
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 323. (1753)
Source Flora of North America vol. 26, p. 452.
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